Faculty

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Carole Ann Spencer, PhD
Professor of Research Medicine
Medicine
IRD 620 Off Campus Los Angeles
+1 626 993 2809

Overview

Dr. Spencer's major areas of research interest are thyroid physiology and pathology, thyroglobulin and thyroid cancer, immunoassay techniques, thyroid hormone metabolism, and the cost-effective use of thyroid tests. Her current research includes clinical significance of Tg and TgAb in patients with thyroid cancers, parameters for optimizing thyroid hormone suppression of TSH for DTC. Studies on hypothalamic/pituitary mechanisms for regulating TSH, and testing for thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy.

Dr. Spencer earned her PhD from Glasgow University in Scotland. She then went on to complete two fellowships, one in Clinical Biochemistry at Glasgow, and the other at the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry.

Awards

Endocrine Society: International Award for Publishing Excellence, 2011

National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry: Distinguished Scientist Award, 2004

London Academy of Music and Dramatic Art: Gold Medal, 1967

Clinical Ligand Assay Society: Distinguished Scientist Award, 1998

American Association for Clinical Chemistry: Outstanding Speaker, 1997

American Association for Clinical Chemistry: Outstanding Speaker, 1998

American Association for Clinical Chemistry: Outstanding Speaker, 1992

American Association of Clinical Chemistry: Albert L. Chaney Award, 2003

Publications

Aghajanian P, Spencer CA, Wilson ML, Lee RH, Goodwin TM, Mestman JH. Evaluation of risk-factor-based screening for thyroid peroxidase antibody positivity in pregnancy. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2016 Mar; 84(3):417-22. View in: PubMed

Stagnaro-Green A, Dogo-Isonaige E, Pearce EN, Spencer C, Gaba ND. Marginal Iodine Status and High Rate of Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Washington DC Women Planning Conception. Thyroid. 2015 Oct; 25(10):1151-4. View in: PubMed

Netzel BC, Grebe SK, Carranza Leon BG, Castro MR, Clark PM, Hoofnagle AN, Spencer CA, Turcu AF, Algeciras-Schimnich A. Thyroglobulin (Tg) testing revisited: Tg assays, TgAb assays and correlation of results with clinical outcomes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015 Jun 16; jc20151967. View in: PubMed

Spencer C, Petrovic I, Fatemi S, LoPresti J. Serum thyroglobulin (tg) monitoring of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer using sensitive (second-generation) immunometric assays can be disrupted by false-negative and false-positive serum thyroglobulin autoantibody misclassifications. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014 Dec; 99(12):4589-99. View in: PubMed

Spencer C, LoPresti J, Fatemi S. How sensitive (second-generation) thyroglobulin measurement is changing paradigms for monitoring patients with differentiated thyroid cancer, in the absence or presence of thyroglobulin autoantibodies. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2014 Oct; 21(5):394-404. View in: PubMed

Angell TE, Spencer CA, Rubino BD, Nicoloff JT, LoPresti JS. In search of an unstimulated thyroglobulin baseline value in low-risk papillary thyroid carcinoma patients not receiving radioactive iodine ablation. Thyroid. 2014 Jul; 24(7):1127-33. View in: PubMed

Spencer C. Commentary on: Implications of thyroglobulin antibody positivity in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer: a clinical position statement. Thyroid. 2013 Oct; 23(10):1190-2. View in: PubMed

Spencer C, Fatemi S. Thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb) methods - Strengths, pitfalls and clinical utility for monitoring TgAb-positive patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Oct; 27(5):701-12. View in: PubMed

Spencer CA. Clinical Utility of Thyroglobulin Antibody (TgAb) Measurements for Patients with Differentiated Thyroid Cancers (DTC). J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Dec; 96(12):3615-27. View in: PubMed

Pearce EN, Spencer CA, Mestman JH, Lee RH, Bergoglio LM, Mereshian P, He X, Leung AM, Braverman LE. Effect of environmental perchlorate on thyroid function in pregnant women from Córdoba, Argentina, and Los Angeles, California. Endocr Pract. 2011 May-Jun; 17(3):412-7. View in: PubMed

Spencer C, Petrovic I, Fatemi S. Current thyroglobulin autoantibody (TgAb) assays often fail to detect interfering TgAb that can result in the reporting of falsely low/undetectable serum Tg IMA values for patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 May; 96(5):1283-91. View in: PubMed

Glinoer D, Spencer CA. Serum TSH determinations in pregnancy: how, when and why? Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2010 Sep; 6(9):526-9. View in: PubMed

Spencer C, Fatemi S, Singer P, Nicoloff J, Lopresti J. Serum Basal thyroglobulin measured by a second-generation assay correlates with the recombinant human thyrotropin-stimulated thyroglobulin response in patients treated for differentiated thyroid cancer. Thyroid. 2010 Jun; 20(6):587-95. View in: PubMed

Lee RH, Spencer CA, Montoro MN, Aghajanian P, Goodwin TM, Miller EA, Petrovic I, Braverman LE, Mestman JH. Effect of thyroid peroxidase antibodies on thyroid-stimulating hormone reference limits in a primarily Latina population. Obstet Med. 2009 Dec; 2(4):154-6. View in: PubMed

Lee RH, Spencer CA, Mestman JH, Miller EA, Petrovic I, Braverman LE, Goodwin TM. Free T4 immunoassays are flawed during pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2009 Mar; 200(3):260. e1-6. View in: PubMed

St John JA, Henderson VW, Gatto NM, McCleary CA, Spencer CA, Hodis HN, Mack WJ. Mildly elevated TSH and cognition in middle-aged and older adults. Thyroid. 2009 Feb; 19(2):111-7. View in: PubMed

Spencer CA, Lopresti JS. Measuring thyroglobulin and thyroglobulin autoantibody in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Apr; 4(4):223-33. View in: PubMed

Spencer CA, Hollowell JG, Kazarosyan M, Braverman LE. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-thyroperoxidase antibody relationships demonstrate that TSH upper reference limits may be skewed by occult thyroid dysfunction. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Nov; 92(11):4236-40. View in: PubMed

Sobrero G, Muñoz L, Bazzara L, Martin S, Silvano L, Iorkansky S, Bergoglio L, Spencer C, Miras M. Thyroglobulin reference values in a pediatric infant population. Thyroid. 2007 Nov; 17(11):1049-54. View in: PubMed

Spencer CA, Bergoglio LM, Kazarosyan M, Fatemi S, LoPresti JS. Clinical impact of thyroglobulin (Tg) and Tg autoantibody method differences on the management of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005 Oct; 90(10):5566-75. View in: PubMed

Spencer CA, Jamrozik K, Lawrence-Brown M, Norman PE. Lifestyle still predicts mortality in older men with established vascular disease. Prev Med. 2005 Aug; 41(2):583-8. View in: PubMed

Spencer CA, Jamrozik K, Norman PE, Lawrence-Brown M. A simple lifestyle score predicts survival in healthy elderly men. Prev Med. 2005 Jun; 40(6):712-7. View in: PubMed

Mandel SJ, Spencer CA, Hollowell JG. Are detection and treatment of thyroid insufficiency in pregnancy feasible? Thyroid. 2005 Jan; 15(1):44-53. View in: PubMed

Spencer CA. Challenges of serum thyroglobulin (Tg) measurement in the presence of Tg autoantibodies. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Aug; 89(8):3702-4. View in: PubMed

Baloch Z, Carayon P, Conte-Devolx B, Demers LM, Feldt-Rasmussen U, Henry JF, LiVosli VA, Niccoli-Sire P, John R, Ruf J, Smyth PP, Spencer CA, Stockigt JR. Laboratory medicine practice guidelines. Laboratory support for the diagnosis and monitoring of thyroid disease. Thyroid. 2003 Jan; 13(1):3-126. View in: PubMed

Hollowell JG, Staehling NW, Flanders WD, Hannon WH, Gunter EW, Spencer CA, Braverman LE. Serum TSH, T(4), and thyroid antibodies in the United States population (1988 to 1994): National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Feb; 87(2):489-99. View in: PubMed

Spencer CA, Takeuchi M, Kazarosyan M, Wang CC, Guttler RB, Singer PA, Fatemi S, LoPresti JS, Nicoloff JT. Serum thyroglobulin autoantibodies: prevalence, influence on serum thyroglobulin measurement, and prognostic significance in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998 Apr; 83(4):1121-7. View in: PubMed

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