Faculty

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Carole Ann Spencer, PhD
Professor of Research Medicine
Medicine
IRD 620 Off Campus Los Angeles
+1 626 993 2809

Overview

Dr. Spencer's major areas of research interest are thyroid physiology and pathology, thyroglobulin and thyroid cancer, immunoassay techniques, thyroid hormone metabolism, and the cost-effective use of thyroid tests. Her current research includes clinical significance of Tg and TgAb in patients with thyroid cancers, parameters for optimizing thyroid hormone suppression of TSH for DTC. Studies on hypothalamic/pituitary mechanisms for regulating TSH, and testing for thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy.

Dr. Spencer earned her PhD from Glasgow University in Scotland. She then went on to complete two fellowships, one in Clinical Biochemistry at Glasgow, and the other at the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry.

Awards

Endocrine Society: International Award for Publishing Excellence, 2011

National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry: Distinguished Scientist Award, 2004

London Academy of Music and Dramatic Art: Gold Medal, 1967

Clinical Ligand Assay Society: Distinguished Scientist Award, 1998

American Association for Clinical Chemistry: Outstanding Speaker, 1997

American Association for Clinical Chemistry: Outstanding Speaker, 1998

American Association for Clinical Chemistry: Outstanding Speaker, 1992

American Association of Clinical Chemistry: Albert L. Chaney Award, 2003

American Association of Clinical Chemistry: award or honor for, 2003

American Association for Clinical Chemistry: award or honor for, 1992

American Association for Clinical Chemistry: award or honor for, 1997

American Association for Clinical Chemistry: award or honor for, 1998

Endocrine Society: award or honor for, 2011

National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry: award or honor for, 2004

Clinical Ligand Assay Society: award or honor for, 1998

London Academy of Music and Dramatic Art: award or honor for, 1967

American Association for Clinical Chemistry: full name, 1992

American Association of Clinical Chemistry: full name, 2003

Clinical Ligand Assay Society: full name, 1998

National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry: full name, 2004

American Association for Clinical Chemistry: full name, 1997

Endocrine Society: full name, 2011

American Association for Clinical Chemistry: full name, 1998

London Academy of Music and Dramatic Art: full name, 1967

Endocrine Society: person in primary position, 2011

American Association for Clinical Chemistry: person in primary position, 1992

Clinical Ligand Assay Society: person in primary position, 1998

London Academy of Music and Dramatic Art: person in primary position, 1967

National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry: person in primary position, 2004

American Association for Clinical Chemistry: person in primary position, 1997

American Association for Clinical Chemistry: person in primary position, 1998

American Association of Clinical Chemistry: person in primary position, 2003

Endocrine Society: last name, 2011

American Association for Clinical Chemistry: last name, 1997

American Association for Clinical Chemistry: last name, 1998

American Association for Clinical Chemistry: last name, 1992

London Academy of Music and Dramatic Art: last name, 1967

American Association of Clinical Chemistry: last name, 2003

National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry: last name, 2004

Clinical Ligand Assay Society: last name, 1998

London Academy of Music and Dramatic Art: HR job title, 1967

American Association of Clinical Chemistry: HR job title, 2003

National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry: HR job title, 2004

American Association for Clinical Chemistry: HR job title, 1997

American Association for Clinical Chemistry: HR job title, 1992

American Association for Clinical Chemistry: HR job title, 1998

Endocrine Society: HR job title, 2011

Clinical Ligand Assay Society: HR job title, 1998

American Association for Clinical Chemistry: position in department, 1998

American Association for Clinical Chemistry: position in department, 1992

London Academy of Music and Dramatic Art: position in department, 1967

American Association for Clinical Chemistry: position in department, 1997

Endocrine Society: position in department, 2011

National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry: position in department, 2004

American Association of Clinical Chemistry: position in department, 2003

National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry: sort order, 2004

American Association for Clinical Chemistry: sort order, 1992

American Association for Clinical Chemistry: sort order, 1998

Clinical Ligand Assay Society: sort order, 1998

London Academy of Music and Dramatic Art: sort order, 1967

American Association for Clinical Chemistry: sort order, 1997

Endocrine Society: sort order, 2011

American Association of Clinical Chemistry: sort order, 2003

Clinical Ligand Assay Society: Organization, 1998

National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry: Organization, 2004

American Association of Clinical Chemistry: Organization, 2003

American Association for Clinical Chemistry: Organization, 1997

American Association for Clinical Chemistry: Organization, 1998

London Academy of Music and Dramatic Art: Organization, 1967

Endocrine Society: Organization, 2011

American Association for Clinical Chemistry: Organization, 1992

American Association for Clinical Chemistry: email address, 1992

Endocrine Society: email address, 2011

American Association of Clinical Chemistry: email address, 2003

American Association for Clinical Chemistry: email address, 1998

London Academy of Music and Dramatic Art: email address, 1967

Clinical Ligand Assay Society: email address, 1998

American Association for Clinical Chemistry: email address, 1997

National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry: email address, 2004

American Association for Clinical Chemistry: start date, 1998

American Association for Clinical Chemistry: start date, 1992

Endocrine Society: start date, 2011

London Academy of Music and Dramatic Art: start date, 1967

American Association of Clinical Chemistry: start date, 2003

Clinical Ligand Assay Society: start date, 1998

National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry: start date, 2004

American Association for Clinical Chemistry: start date, 1997

National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry: type, 2004

American Association for Clinical Chemistry: type, 1997

London Academy of Music and Dramatic Art: type, 1967

American Association for Clinical Chemistry: type, 1998

Endocrine Society: type, 2011

American Association for Clinical Chemistry: type, 1992

American Association of Clinical Chemistry: type, 2003

Clinical Ligand Assay Society: type, 1998

American Association for Clinical Chemistry: workplace homepage, 1998

Clinical Ligand Assay Society: workplace homepage, 1998

American Association for Clinical Chemistry: workplace homepage, 1997

Endocrine Society: workplace homepage, 2011

American Association of Clinical Chemistry: workplace homepage, 2003

National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry: workplace homepage, 2004

American Association for Clinical Chemistry: workplace homepage, 1992

American Association for Clinical Chemistry: Professor, 1998

London Academy of Music and Dramatic Art: Professor, 1967

National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry: Professor, 2004

Endocrine Society: Professor, 2011

American Association for Clinical Chemistry: Professor, 1992

American Association of Clinical Chemistry: Professor, 2003

American Association for Clinical Chemistry: Professor, 1997

American Association for Clinical Chemistry: award conferred by, 1998

American Association of Clinical Chemistry: award conferred by, 2003

London Academy of Music and Dramatic Art: award conferred by, 1967

National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry: award conferred by, 2004

American Association for Clinical Chemistry: award conferred by, 1997

Clinical Ligand Assay Society: award conferred by, 1998

American Association for Clinical Chemistry: award conferred by, 1992

Endocrine Society: award conferred by, 2011

American Association for Clinical Chemistry: Faculty Rank, 1992

American Association for Clinical Chemistry: Faculty Rank, 1997

National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry: Faculty Rank, 2004

Clinical Ligand Assay Society: Faculty Rank, 1998

London Academy of Music and Dramatic Art: Faculty Rank, 1967

American Association for Clinical Chemistry: Faculty Rank, 1998

Endocrine Society: Faculty Rank, 2011

American Association of Clinical Chemistry: Faculty Rank, 2003

American Association of Clinical Chemistry: is primary position, 2003

Clinical Ligand Assay Society: is primary position, 1998

American Association for Clinical Chemistry: is primary position, 1997

American Association for Clinical Chemistry: is primary position, 1992

American Association for Clinical Chemistry: is primary position, 1998

Endocrine Society: is primary position, 2011

London Academy of Music and Dramatic Art: is primary position, 1967

National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry: is primary position, 2004

Clinical Ligand Assay Society: preferred title, 1998

London Academy of Music and Dramatic Art: preferred title, 1967

American Association of Clinical Chemistry: preferred title, 2003

American Association for Clinical Chemistry: preferred title, 1997

National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry: preferred title, 2004

Endocrine Society: preferred title, 2011

American Association for Clinical Chemistry: preferred title, 1998

American Association for Clinical Chemistry: preferred title, 1992

National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry: Agent, 2004

American Association for Clinical Chemistry: Agent, 1997

American Association for Clinical Chemistry: Agent, 1998

London Academy of Music and Dramatic Art: Agent, 1967

American Association of Clinical Chemistry: Agent, 2003

American Association for Clinical Chemistry: Agent, 1992

Endocrine Society: Agent, 2011

Clinical Ligand Assay Society: Agent, 1998

American Association for Clinical Chemistry: first name, 1997

London Academy of Music and Dramatic Art: first name, 1967

National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry: first name, 2004

Clinical Ligand Assay Society: first name, 1998

Endocrine Society: first name, 2011

American Association of Clinical Chemistry: first name, 2003

American Association for Clinical Chemistry: first name, 1998

American Association for Clinical Chemistry: first name, 1992

London Academy of Music and Dramatic Art: position in organization, 1967

Clinical Ligand Assay Society: position in organization, 1998

American Association for Clinical Chemistry: position in organization, 1998

American Association for Clinical Chemistry: position in organization, 1992

American Association of Clinical Chemistry: position in organization, 2003

National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry: position in organization, 2004

American Association for Clinical Chemistry: position in organization, 1997

Endocrine Society: position in organization, 2011

American Association for Clinical Chemistry: Person ID, 1997

National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry: Person ID, 2004

London Academy of Music and Dramatic Art: Person ID, 1967

American Association for Clinical Chemistry: Person ID, 1998

Clinical Ligand Assay Society: Person ID, 1998

Endocrine Society: Person ID, 2011

American Association of Clinical Chemistry: Person ID, 2003

American Association for Clinical Chemistry: Person ID, 1992

American Association for Clinical Chemistry: has faculty rank, 1992

London Academy of Music and Dramatic Art: has faculty rank, 1967

Clinical Ligand Assay Society: has faculty rank, 1998

American Association for Clinical Chemistry: has faculty rank, 1997

American Association of Clinical Chemistry: has faculty rank, 2003

National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry: has faculty rank, 2004

American Association for Clinical Chemistry: has faculty rank, 1998

Endocrine Society: has faculty rank, 2011

London Academy of Music and Dramatic Art: Spencer, Carole, 1967

American Association for Clinical Chemistry: Spencer, Carole, 1997

American Association for Clinical Chemistry: Spencer, Carole, 1998

National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry: Spencer, Carole, 2004

Clinical Ligand Assay Society: Spencer, Carole, 1998

American Association of Clinical Chemistry: Spencer, Carole, 2003

Endocrine Society: Medicine, 2011

American Association for Clinical Chemistry: Medicine, 1998

American Association for Clinical Chemistry: Medicine, 1997

American Association for Clinical Chemistry: Medicine, 1992

London Academy of Music and Dramatic Art: Medicine, 1967

Clinical Ligand Assay Society: Medicine, 1998

National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry: Medicine, 2004

American Association for Clinical Chemistry: Keck School of Medicine of USC, 1992

Clinical Ligand Assay Society: Keck School of Medicine of USC, 1998

London Academy of Music and Dramatic Art: Keck School of Medicine of USC, 1967

American Association for Clinical Chemistry: Keck School of Medicine of USC, 1997

American Association for Clinical Chemistry: Keck School of Medicine of USC, 1998

National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry: Keck School of Medicine of USC, 2004

Endocrine Society: Keck School of Medicine of USC, 2011

American Association of Clinical Chemistry: Keck School of Medicine of USC, 2003

American Association for Clinical Chemistry: Position, 1992

American Association of Clinical Chemistry: Position, 2003

American Association for Clinical Chemistry: Position, 1998

Clinical Ligand Assay Society: Position, 1998

National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry: Position, 2004

American Association for Clinical Chemistry: Position, 1997

London Academy of Music and Dramatic Art: Position, 1967

Publications

. View in: PubMed

Evaluation of risk-factor-based screening for thyroid peroxidase antibody positivity in pregnancy. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2016 Mar; 84(3):417-22. View in: PubMed

Marginal Iodine Status and High Rate of Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Washington DC Women Planning Conception. Thyroid. 2015 Oct; 25(10):1151-4. View in: PubMed

Thyroglobulin (Tg) testing revisited: Tg assays, TgAb assays and correlation of results with clinical outcomes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015 Jun 16; jc20151967. View in: PubMed

Serum thyroglobulin (tg) monitoring of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer using sensitive (second-generation) immunometric assays can be disrupted by false-negative and false-positive serum thyroglobulin autoantibody misclassifications. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014 Dec; 99(12):4589-99. View in: PubMed

How sensitive (second-generation) thyroglobulin measurement is changing paradigms for monitoring patients with differentiated thyroid cancer, in the absence or presence of thyroglobulin autoantibodies. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2014 Oct; 21(5):394-404. View in: PubMed

In search of an unstimulated thyroglobulin baseline value in low-risk papillary thyroid carcinoma patients not receiving radioactive iodine ablation. Thyroid. 2014 Jul; 24(7):1127-33. View in: PubMed

Thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb) methods - Strengths, pitfalls and clinical utility for monitoring TgAb-positive patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Oct; 27(5):701-12. View in: PubMed

Commentary on: Implications of thyroglobulin antibody positivity in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer: a clinical position statement. Thyroid. 2013 Oct; 23(10):1190-2. View in: PubMed

Clinical Utility of Thyroglobulin Antibody (TgAb) Measurements for Patients with Differentiated Thyroid Cancers (DTC). J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Dec; 96(12):3615-27. View in: PubMed

Current thyroglobulin autoantibody (TgAb) assays often fail to detect interfering TgAb that can result in the reporting of falsely low/undetectable serum Tg IMA values for patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 May; 96(5):1283-91. View in: PubMed

Effect of environmental perchlorate on thyroid function in pregnant women from Córdoba, Argentina, and Los Angeles, California. Endocr Pract. 2011 May-Jun; 17(3):412-7. View in: PubMed

Serum TSH determinations in pregnancy: how, when and why? Nat Rev Endocrinol. Serum TSH determinations in pregnancy: how, when and why? Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2010 Sep; 6(9):526-9. View in: PubMed

Serum Basal thyroglobulin measured by a second-generation assay correlates with the recombinant human thyrotropin-stimulated thyroglobulin response in patients treated for differentiated thyroid cancer. Thyroid. 2010 Jun; 20(6):587-95. View in: PubMed

Effect of thyroid peroxidase antibodies on thyroid-stimulating hormone reference limits in a primarily Latina population. Obstet Med. 2009 Dec; 2(4):154-6. View in: PubMed

Free T4 immunoassays are flawed during pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2009 Mar; 200(3):260. e1-6. View in: PubMed

Mildly elevated TSH and cognition in middle-aged and older adults. Thyroid. 2009 Feb; 19(2):111-7. View in: PubMed

Measuring thyroglobulin and thyroglobulin autoantibody in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Apr; 4(4):223-33. View in: PubMed

National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-thyroperoxidase antibody relationships demonstrate that TSH upper reference limits may be skewed by occult thyroid dysfunction. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Nov; 92(11):4236-40. View in: PubMed

Thyroglobulin reference values in a pediatric infant population. Thyroid. 2007 Nov; 17(11):1049-54. View in: PubMed

Clinical impact of thyroglobulin (Tg) and Tg autoantibody method differences on the management of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005 Oct; 90(10):5566-75. View in: PubMed

Lifestyle still predicts mortality in older men with established vascular disease. Prev Med. 2005 Aug; 41(2):583-8. View in: PubMed

A simple lifestyle score predicts survival in healthy elderly men. Prev Med. 2005 Jun; 40(6):712-7. View in: PubMed

Are detection and treatment of thyroid insufficiency in pregnancy feasible? Thyroid. Are detection and treatment of thyroid insufficiency in pregnancy feasible? Thyroid. 2005 Jan; 15(1):44-53. View in: PubMed

Challenges of serum thyroglobulin (Tg) measurement in the presence of Tg autoantibodies. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Aug; 89(8):3702-4. View in: PubMed

Laboratory medicine practice guidelines. Laboratory support for the diagnosis and monitoring of thyroid disease. Thyroid. 2003 Jan; 13(1):3-126. View in: PubMed

Serum TSH, T(4), and thyroid antibodies in the United States population (1988 to 1994): National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Feb; 87(2):489-99. View in: PubMed

Serum thyroglobulin autoantibodies: prevalence, influence on serum thyroglobulin measurement, and prognostic significance in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998 Apr; 83(4):1121-7. View in: PubMed

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