Faculty

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Charles Liu, MD, PhD
Professor of Clinical Neurological Surgery
Director, USC Neurorestoration Center
Neurological Surgery
DEI 3700 Health Sciences Campus Los Angeles
+1 323 226 7421

Overview

Dr. Liu completed his undergraduate education in Chemical Engineering at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, and went on to receive his PhD in Chemical/Biomedical Engineering at Rice University. He then attended the Yale University School of Medicine, receiving his MD degree. He trained in neurosurgery at the University of Southern California Affiliated Hospitals.

He is presently professor of neurosurgery and neurology and holds the Apuzzo Professorship for Advanced Neurosurgery. He is also Director of the USC Center for Neurorestoration, which functions to bring scientific advances in the laboratory and engineers new tools to restore function to the injured and diseased nervous system. He also serves as the Surgical Director of the USC Comprehensive Epilepsy Program, one of the premier and highest volume surgical epilepsy programs in the world.

He has received numerous research awards and made a large number of visitorships/invited lectures throughout the world. He also serves as Associate Editor of the journal, WORLD NEUROSURGERY. He is a principal neurosurgical consultant for the NCAA USC Trojans Athletics Department. In addition, he serves on the Executive Committee of the Congress of Neurological Surgeons. At Rancho los Amigos, Dr. Liu is Chair of the Department of Neurosurgery and is developing cutting-edge programs in restorative neurosurgery, collaborating with scientists at Caltech and USC, among others.

Awards

Castle Connolly Medical Ltd. : Top Doctor, 2015

Castle Connolly Medical Ltd: Top Doctor, 2011

Publications

Liu CY, Lee B, Boulis N, Rezai AR. Introduction: Neurorestoration: re-animating the CNS. Neurosurg Focus. 2016 May; 40(5):E1. View in: PubMed

Kramer DR, Fujii T, Ohiorhenuan I, Liu CY. Cortical spreading depolarization: Pathophysiology, implications, and future directions. J Clin Neurosci. 2016 Feb; 24:22-7. View in: PubMed

Liu CY, Law M, Romano R. Rational Approach to Understanding and Preventing Sports-Related Traumatic Brain Injuries. World Neurosurg. 2015 Dec; 84(6):1556-7. View in: PubMed

Taghva A, Silvetz R, Ring A, Kim KY, Murphy KT, Liu CY, Jin Y. Magnetic Resonance Therapy Improves Clinical Phenotype and EEG Alpha Power in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Trauma Mon. 2015 Nov; 20(4):e27360. View in: PubMed

Russin JJ, Kramer DR, Thomas D, Hasson D, Liu CY, Amar AP, Mack WJ, Giannotta SL. The importance of preoperative diagnosis of blister aneurysms. J Clin Neurosci. 2015 Sep; 22(9):1408-12. View in: PubMed

Lee B, Zubair MN, Marquez YD, Lee DM, Kalayjian LA, Heck CN, Liu CY. A Single-Center Experience with the NeuroPace RNS System: A Review of Techniques and Potential Problems. World Neurosurg. 2015 Sep; 84(3):719-26. View in: PubMed

Liu CY, Baskaya M. The Congress of Neurological Surgeons International Division 2014. Neurosurgery. 2015 Aug; 62 Suppl 1:79-80. View in: PubMed

Hsiao MC, Yu PN, Song D, Liu CY, Heck CN, Millett D, Berger TW. An in vitro seizure model from human hippocampal slices using multi-electrode arrays. J Neurosci Methods. 2015 Apr 15; 244:154-63. View in: PubMed

Liu CY. Neurosurgery: expanding relevance in the evolution of medicine? World Neurosurg. 2014 Dec; 82(6):955-7. View in: PubMed

Lee B, Attenello FJ, Liu CY, McLoughlin MP, Apuzzo ML. Recapitulating flesh with silicon and steel: advancements in upper extremity robotic prosthetics. World Neurosurg. 2014 May-Jun; 81(5-6):730-41. View in: PubMed

Attenello FJ, Lee B, Yu C, Liu CY, Apuzzo ML. Supplementing the neurosurgical virtuoso: evolution of automation from mythology to operating room adjunct. World Neurosurg. 2014 May-Jun; 81(5-6):719-29. View in: PubMed

Robison RA, Taghva A, Liu CY, Apuzzo ML. Surgery of the mind, mood, and conscious state: an idea in evolution. World Neurosurg. 2013 Sep-Oct; 80(3-4):S2-26. View in: PubMed

Russin JJ, Attenello FJ, Amar AP, Liu CY, Apuzzo ML, Hsieh PC. Computed tomography for clearance of cervical spine injury in the unevaluable patient. World Neurosurg. 2013 Sep-Oct; 80(3-4):405-13. View in: PubMed

Lee B, Liu CY, Apuzzo ML. A primer on brain-machine interfaces, concepts, and technology: a key element in the future of functional neurorestoration. World Neurosurg. 2013 Mar-Apr; 79(3-4):457-71. View in: PubMed

Apuzzo ML, Pagán VM, Faccio R, Liu CY. A Bosphorus submarine passage and the reinvention of neurosurgery. World Neurosurg. 2013 Jan; 79(1):40-52. View in: PubMed

Winer JL, Liu CY, Apuzzo ML. The use of nanoparticles as contrast media in neuroimaging: a statement on toxicity. World Neurosurg. 2012 Dec; 78(6):709-11. View in: PubMed

Lee B, Liu CY, Apuzzo ML. Quantum computing: a prime modality in neurosurgery's future. World Neurosurg. 2012 Nov; 78(5):404-8. View in: PubMed

Robison RA, Taghva A, Liu CY, Apuzzo ML. Surgery of the mind, mood, and conscious state: an idea in evolution. World Neurosurg. 2012 May; 77(5-6):662-86. View in: PubMed

Liu CY. The neurosurgeon "academician" in china. World Neurosurg. 2012 Feb; 77(2):219. View in: PubMed

Hsiao MC, Yu PN, Song D, Liu CY, Heck CN, Millett D, Berger TW. Spatio-temporal inter-ictal activity recorded from human epileptic hippocampal slices. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2012; 2012:5166-9. View in: PubMed

Robison RA, Liu CY, Apuzzo ML. Man, mind, and machine: the past and future of virtual reality simulation in neurologic surgery. World Neurosurg. 2011 Nov; 76(5):419-30. View in: PubMed

Yashar P, Amar AP, Giannotta SL, Yu C, Pagnini PG, Liu CY, Apuzzo ML. Cerebral arteriovenous malformations: issues of the interplay between stereotactic radiosurgery and endovascular surgical therapy. World Neurosurg. 2011 May-Jun; 75(5-6):638-47. View in: PubMed

Winer JL, Kim PE, Law M, Liu CY, Apuzzo ML. Visualizing the future: enhancing neuroimaging with nanotechnology. World Neurosurg. 2011 May-Jun; 75(5-6):626-37; discussion 618-9. View in: PubMed

Stapleton CJ, Armstrong DL, Zidovetzki R, Liu CY, Giannotta SL, Hofman FM. Thrombospondin-1 modulates the angiogenic phenotype of human cerebral arteriovenous malformation endothelial cells. Neurosurgery. 2011 May; 68(5):1342-53; discussion 1353. View in: PubMed

Liu CY, Pagán V, Liu NH. The Terra Cotta Army of Qin Shi Huang. World Neurosurg. 2011 Mar-Apr; 75(3-4):352-3. View in: PubMed

Stapleton CJ, Liu CY, Weiss MH. The role of stereotactic radiosurgery in the multimodal management of growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas. Neurosurg Focus. 2010 Oct; 29(4):E11. View in: PubMed

Hoh DJ, Liu CY, Wang MY. A radiographic computed tomography-based study to determine the ideal entry point, trajectory, and length for safe fixation using C-2 pars interarticularis screws. J Neurosurg Spine. 2010 Jun; 12(6):602-12. View in: PubMed

Taghva A, Khalessi AA, Kim PE, Liu CY, Apuzzo ML. From atom to brain: applications of molecular imaging to neurosurgery. World Neurosurg. 2010 May; 73(5):477-85. View in: PubMed

Taghva A, Kim PE, Liu CY, Apuzzo ML. Molecular imaging, part 1: apertures into the landscape of genomic medicine. World Neurosurg. 2010 Apr; 73(4):307-16. View in: PubMed

Elder JB, Hoh DJ, Liu CY, Wang MY. Postoperative continuous paravertebral anesthetic infusion for pain control in posterior cervical spine surgery: a case-control study. Neurosurgery. 2010 Mar; 66(3 Suppl Operative):99-106; discussion 106-7. View in: PubMed

Farin A, Liu CY, Langmoen IA, Apuzzo ML. Biological restoration of central nervous system architecture and function: part 3-stem cell- and cell-based applications and realities in the biological management of central nervous system disorders: traumatic, vascular, and epilepsy disorders. Neurosurgery. 2009 Nov; 65(5):831-59; discussion 859. View in: PubMed

Khalessi AA, Liu CY, Apuzzo ML. Neurosurgery and quantum dots: part I--state of the art. Neurosurgery. 2009 Jun; 64(6):1015-27; discussion 1027-8. View in: PubMed

Zada G, Christian E, Liu CY, Giannotta SL. Fenestrated aneurysm clips in the surgical management of anterior communicating artery aneurysms: operative techniques and strategy. Clinical article. Neurosurg Focus. 2009 May; 26(5):E7. View in: PubMed

Apuzzo ML, Elder JB, Liu CY. The metamorphosis of neurological surgery and the reinvention of the neurosurgeon. Neurosurgery. 2009 May; 64(5):788-94; discussion 794-5. View in: PubMed

Farin A, Liu CY, Langmoen IA, Apuzzo ML. The biological restoration of central nervous system architecture and function: part 2-emergence of the realization of adult neurogenesis. Neurosurgery. 2009 Apr; 64(4):581-60; discussion 600-1. View in: PubMed

Farin A, Liu CY, Elder JB, Langmoen IA, Apuzzo ML. The biological restoration of central nervous system architecture and function: part 1-foundations and historical landmarks in contemporary stem cell biology. Neurosurgery. 2009 Jan; 64(1):15-39; discussion 34. View in: PubMed

Jabbour MN, Elder JB, Samuelson CG, Khashabi S, Hofman FM, Giannotta SL, Liu CY. Aberrant angiogenic characteristics of human brain arteriovenous malformation endothelial cells. Neurosurgery. 2009 Jan; 64(1):139-46; discussion 146-8. View in: PubMed

Apuzzo ML, Elder JB, Faccio R, Liu CY. The alchemy of ideas. Neurosurgery. 2008 Dec; 63(6):1035-44; discussion 1044. View in: PubMed

Zada G, Breault J, Liu CY, Khalessi AA, Larsen DW, Teitelbaum GP, Giannotta SL. Internal carotid artery aneurysms occurring at the origin of fetal variant posterior cerebral arteries: surgical and endovascular experience. Neurosurgery. 2008 Jul; 63(1 Suppl 1):ONS55-61; discussion ONS61-2. View in: PubMed

Elder JB, Hoh DJ, Oh BC, Heller AC, Liu CY, Apuzzo ML. The future of cerebral surgery: a kaleidoscope of opportunities. Neurosurgery. 2008 Jun; 62(6 Suppl 3):1555-79; discussion 1579-82. View in: PubMed

Heller AC, Amar AP, Liu CY, Apuzzo ML. Surgery of the mind and mood: a mosaic of issues in time and evolution. Neurosurgery. 2008 Jun; 62(6 Suppl 3):921-40. View in: PubMed

Hoh DJ, Larsen DW, Elder JB, Kim PE, Giannotta SL, Liu CY. Novel use of an endovascular embolectomy device for retrograde suction decompression-assisted clip ligation of a large paraclinoid aneurysm: technical case report. Neurosurgery. 2008 May; 62(5 Suppl 2):ONSE412-3; discussion ONSE413-4. View in: PubMed

Elder JB, Liu CY, Apuzzo ML. Neurosurgery in the realm of 10(-9), Part 2: applications of nanotechnology to neurosurgery--present and future. Neurosurgery. 2008 Feb; 62(2):269-84; discussion 284-5. View in: PubMed

Elder JB, Liu CY, Apuzzo ML. Neurosurgery in the realm of 10(-9), part 1: stardust and nanotechnology in neuroscience. Neurosurgery. 2008 Jan; 62(1):1-20. View in: PubMed

Davidson L, Liu CY, Zelman V. Alexander N. Konovalov: neurosurgeon, leader, mentor. Neurosurgery. 2008 Jan; 62(1):249-53; discussion 253-5. View in: PubMed

Hoh DJ, Liu CY, Chen JC, Pagnini PG, Yu C, Wang MY, Apuzzo ML. Chained lightning: part III--Emerging technology, novel therapeutic strategies, and new energy modalities for radiosurgery. Neurosurgery. 2007 Dec; 61(6):1111-29; discussion 1129-30. View in: PubMed

Hoh DJ, Liu CY, Chen JC, Pagnini PG, Yu C, Wang MY, Apuzzo ML. Chained lightning, part II: neurosurgical principles, radiosurgical technology, and the manipulation of energy beam delivery. Neurosurgery. 2007 Sep; 61(3):433-46; discussion 446. View in: PubMed

Apuzzo ML, Liu CY, Sullivan D, Faccio RA. Surgery of the human cerebrum--a collective modernity. Neurosurgery. 2007 Jul; 61(1 Suppl):28; discussion 28-31. View in: PubMed

Hoh DJ, Liu CY, Pagnini PG, Yu C, Wang MY, Apuzzo ML. Chained lightning, part I: Exploitation of energy and radiobiological principles for therapeutic purposes. Neurosurgery. 2007 Jul; 61(1):14-27; discussion 27-8. View in: PubMed

Oh BC, Pagnini PG, Wang MY, Liu CY, Kim PE, Yu C, Apuzzo ML. Stereotactic radiosurgery: adjacent tissue injury and response after high-dose single fraction radiation: Part I--Histology, imaging, and molecular events. Neurosurgery. 2007 Jan; 60(1):31-44; discussion 44-5. View in: PubMed

Zada G, Liu CY, Fishback D, Singer PA, Weiss MH. Recognition and management of delayed hyponatremia following transsphenoidal pituitary surgery. J Neurosurg. 2007 Jan; 106(1):66-71. View in: PubMed

Heller AC, Amar AP, Liu CY, Apuzzo ML. Surgery of the mind and mood: a mosaic of issues in time and evolution. Neurosurgery. 2006 Oct; 59(4):720-33; discussion 733-9. View in: PubMed

Leary SP, Liu CY, Apuzzo ML. Toward the emergence of nanoneurosurgery: part III--nanomedicine: targeted nanotherapy, nanosurgery, and progress toward the realization of nanoneurosurgery. Neurosurgery. 2006 Jun; 58(6):1009-26; discussion 1009-26. View in: PubMed

Leary SP, Liu CY, Apuzzo ML. Toward the emergence of nanoneurosurgery: part II--nanomedicine: diagnostics and imaging at the nanoscale level. Neurosurgery. 2006 May; 58(5):805-23; discussion 805-23. View in: PubMed

Kim KA, Wang MY, McNatt SA, Pinsky G, Liu CY, Giannotta SL, Apuzzo ML. Vector analysis correlating bullet trajectory to outcome after civilian through-and-through gunshot wound to the head: using imaging cues to predict fatal outcome. Neurosurgery. 2005 Oct; 57(4):737-47; discussion 737-47. View in: PubMed

Leary SP, Liu CY, Yu C, Apuzzo ML. Toward the emergence of nanoneurosurgery: part I--progress in nanoscience, nanotechnology, and the comprehension of events in the mesoscale realm. Neurosurgery. 2005 Oct; 57(4):606-34; discussion 606-34. View in: PubMed

Marquez YD, Wang MY, Liu CY. Cellular signaling in neural stem cells: implications for restorative neurosurgery. Neurosurg Focus. 2005 Sep 15; 19(3):E2. View in: PubMed

Johnson TE, Wanebo JE, Bayles SW, Liu CY. Graft harvesting for revascularization in the head and neck. Skull Base. 2005 Aug; 15(3):241-51. View in: PubMed

Wang MY, Liu CY. Resorbable polylactic acid interbody spacers with vertebral autograft for anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. Neurosurgery. 2005 Jul; 57(1):135-40; discussion 135-40. View in: PubMed

Liu CY, Wang MY, Apuzzo ML. The physics of image formation in the neuroendoscope. Childs Nerv Syst. 2004 Nov; 20(11-12):777-82. View in: PubMed

Liu CY, Wang MY, Apuzzo ML. The evolution and future of minimalism in neurological surgery. Childs Nerv Syst. 2004 Nov; 20(11-12):783-9. View in: PubMed

Wang MY, Kim KA, Liu CY, Kim P, Apuzzo ML. Reliability of three-dimensional fluoroscopy for detecting pedicle screw violations in the thoracic and lumbar spine. Neurosurgery. 2004 May; 54(5):1138-42; discussion 1142-3. View in: PubMed

Apuzzo ML, Liu CY. Foundations of neurological surgery: the state of the journal and documentation of surgical methods. Clin Neurosurg. 2004; 51:67-9. View in: PubMed

Liu CY, Westerlund U, Svensson M, Moe MC, Varghese M, Berg-Johnsen J, Apuzzo ML, Tirrell DA, Langmoen IA. Artificial niches for human adult neural stem cells: possibility for autologous transplantation therapy. J Hematother Stem Cell Res. 2003 Dec; 12(6):689-99. View in: PubMed

Liu CY, Apuzzo ML, Tirrell DA. Engineering of the extracellular matrix: working toward neural stem cell programming and neurorestoration--concept and progress report. Neurosurgery. 2003 May; 52(5):1154-65; discussion 1165-7. View in: PubMed

Liu CY, Apuzzo ML. The genesis of neurosurgery and the evolution of the neurosurgical operative environment: part I-prehistory to 2003. Neurosurgery. 2003 Jan; 52(1):3-19; discussion 19. View in: PubMed

Liu CY, Spicer M, Apuzzo ML. The genesis of neurosurgery and the evolution of the neurosurgical operative environment: part II--concepts for future development, 2003 and beyond. Neurosurgery. 2003 Jan; 52(1):20-33; discussion 33-5. View in: PubMed

Apuzzo ML, Liu CY, Sullivan D, Faccio RA. Honored guest presentation: surgery of the human cerebrum: a collective modernity. Clin Neurosurg. 2002; 49:27-89. View in: PubMed

Apuzzo ML, Liu CY. Honored guest presentation: quid novi? In the realm of ideas--the neurosurgical dialectic. Clin Neurosurg. 2002; 49:159-87. View in: PubMed

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