Faculty

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Frank L. Acosta, MD
Associate Professor of Clinical Neurological Surgery
Neurological Surgery
DEI 5501 Off Campus Los Angeles
+1 323 226 7421

Overview

Dr. Acosta brings depth to our team as a highly talented neurosurgeon, fellowship trained in complex spine deformity. His outstanding academic and research credentials accelerates our understanding of various spine pathologies and lead us to new translational discoveries.

Awards

Cedars Sinai Medical Center: Golden Apple Resident Teaching Award

Becker's Orthopaedic and Spine Review: 50 Best Spine Specialists in America

CSRS-E Mario Boni Award

Harvard Medical School National Scholarship

Harvard College Scholarship Award

Harvard College Dean's List

Bank of America Achievement Award in Humanities

Publications

Pham MH, Tuchman A, Smith L, Jakoi AM, Patel NN, Mehta VA, Acosta FL. Semitendinosus Graft for Interspinous Ligament Reinforcement in Adult Spinal Deformity. Orthopedics. 2016 Oct 13; 1-5. View in: PubMed

Shweikeh F, Hanna G, Bloom L, Sayegh ET, Liu J, Acosta FL, Drazin D. Assessment of outcome following the use of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 for spinal fusion in the elderly population. J Neurosurg Sci. 2016 Jun; 60(2):256-71. View in: PubMed

Metzger MF, Robinson ST, Svet MT, Liu JC, Acosta FL. Biomechanical Analysis of the Proximal Adjacent Segment after Multilevel Instrumentation of the Thoracic Spine: Do Hooks Ease the Transition? Global Spine J. 2016 Jun; 6(4):335-43. View in: PubMed

Drazin D, Nuño M, Patil CG, Yan K, Liu JC, Acosta FL. Emergency room resource utilization by patients with low-back pain. J Neurosurg Spine. 2016 May; 24(5):686-93. View in: PubMed

D'Oro A, Spoonamore MJ, Cohen JR, Acosta FL, Hsieh PC, Liu JC, Chen TC, Buser Z, Wang JC. Effects of fusion and conservative treatment on disc degeneration and rates of subsequent surgery after thoracolumbar fracture. J Neurosurg Spine. 2016 Mar; 24(3):476-82. View in: PubMed

Buser Z, Acosta FL. Stem cells and spinal fusion-are we there yet? Spine J. 2016 Mar; 16(3):400-1. View in: PubMed

Pham MH, Mehta VA, Patel NN, Jakoi AM, Hsieh PC, Liu JC, Wang JC, Acosta FL. Complications associated with the Dynesys dynamic stabilization system: a comprehensive review of the literature. Neurosurg Focus. 2016 Jan; 40(1):E2. View in: PubMed

Pham MH, Cohen J, Tuchman A, Commins D, Acosta FL. Large solitary osteochondroma of the thoracic spine: Case report and review of the literature. Surg Neurol Int. 2016; 7(Suppl 13):S323-7. View in: PubMed

Attenello FJ, Wen T, Huang C, Cen S, Mack WJ, Acosta FL. Evaluation of weekend admission on the prevalence of hospital acquired conditions in patients receiving thoracolumbar fusions. J Clin Neurosci. 2015 Aug; 22(8):1349-54. View in: PubMed

Wen T, Pease M, Attenello FJ, Tuchman A, Donoho D, Cen S, Mack WJ, Acosta FL. Evaluation of Effect of Weekend Admission on the Prevalence of Hospital-Acquired Conditions in Patients Receiving Cervical Fusions. World Neurosurg. 2015 Jul; 84(1):58-68. View in: PubMed

Tuchman A, Mehta VA, Mack WJ, Acosta FL. Novel application of pre-operative vertebral body embolization to reduce intraoperative blood loss during a three-column spinal osteotomy for non-oncologic spinal deformity. J Clin Neurosci. 2015 Apr; 22(4):765-7. View in: PubMed

Davis TT, Hynes RA, Fung DA, Spann SW, MacMillan M, Kwon B, Liu J, Acosta F, Drochner TE. Retroperitoneal oblique corridor to the L2-S1 intervertebral discs in the lateral position: an anatomic study. J Neurosurg Spine. 2014 Nov; 21(5):785-93. View in: PubMed

Acosta FL, Ames C, Hsieh PC, McCarthy IM. Introduction: Costs and benefits of modern-day spine care. Neurosurg Focus. 2014 Jun; 36(6):Introduction. View in: PubMed

Drazin D, Liu JC, Acosta FL. CT navigated lateral interbody fusion. J Clin Neurosci. 2013 Oct; 20(10):1438-41. View in: PubMed

Acosta FL, Drazin D, Liu JC. Supra-psoas shallow docking in lateral interbody fusion. Neurosurgery. 2013 Sep; 73(1 Suppl Operative):ons48-51; discussion ons52. View in: PubMed

Scheer JK, Tang JA, Smith JS, Acosta FL, Protopsaltis TS, Blondel B, Bess S, Shaffrey CI, Deviren V, Lafage V, Schwab F, Ames CP. Cervical spine alignment, sagittal deformity, and clinical implications: a review. J Neurosurg Spine. 2013 Aug; 19(2):141-59. View in: PubMed

Acosta FL, McClendon J, O'Shaughnessy BA, Koski TR, Ondra SL, Koller H, Meier O, Neal CJ, Ames CP. Deformity surgery. Response. J Neurosurg Spine. 2013 Apr; 18(4):415-6. View in: PubMed

Nuño M, Drazin DG, Acosta FL. Differences in treatments and outcomes for idiopathic scoliosis patients treated in the United States from 1998 to 2007: impact of socioeconomic variables and ethnicity. Spine J. 2013 Feb; 13(2):116-23. View in: PubMed

Shirzadi A, Birch K, Drazin D, Liu JC, Acosta F. Direct lateral interbody fusion (DLIF) at the lumbosacral junction L5-S1. J Clin Neurosci. 2012 Jul; 19(7):1022-5. View in: PubMed

Koller H, Mayer M, Zenner J, Resch H, Niederberger A, Fierlbeck J, Hitzl W, Acosta FL. Implications of the center of rotation concept for the reconstruction of anterior column lordosis and axial preloads in spinal deformity surgery. J Neurosurg Spine. 2012 Jul; 17(1):43-56. View in: PubMed

Drazin D, Rosner J, Avalos P, Acosta F. Stem cell therapy for degenerative disc disease. Adv Orthop. 2012; 2012:961052. View in: PubMed

Rosner J, Avalos P, Acosta F, Liu J, Drazin D. The potential for cellular therapy combined with growth factors in spinal cord injury. Stem Cells Int. 2012; 2012:826754. View in: PubMed

Acosta FL, McClendon J, O'Shaughnessy BA, Koller H, Neal CJ, Meier O, Ames CP, Koski TR, Ondra SL. Morbidity and mortality after spinal deformity surgery in patients 75 years and older: complications and predictive factors. J Neurosurg Spine. 2011 Dec; 15(6):667-74. View in: PubMed

Acosta FL, Metz L, Adkisson HD, Liu J, Carruthers-Liebenberg E, Milliman C, Maloney M, Lotz JC. Porcine intervertebral disc repair using allogeneic juvenile articular chondrocytes or mesenchymal stem cells. Tissue Eng Part A. 2011 Dec; 17(23-24):3045-55. View in: PubMed

Drazin D, Shirzadi A, Rosner J, Eboli P, Safee M, Baron EM, Liu JC, Acosta FL. Complications and outcomes after spinal deformity surgery in the elderly: review of the existing literature and future directions. Neurosurg Focus. 2011 Oct; 31(4):E3. View in: PubMed

Moller DJ, Slimack NP, Acosta FL, Koski TR, Fessler RG, Liu JC. Minimally invasive lateral lumbar interbody fusion and transpsoas approach-related morbidity. Neurosurg Focus. 2011 Oct; 31(4):E4. View in: PubMed

Acosta FL, Liu J, Slimack N, Moller D, Fessler R, Koski T. Changes in coronal and sagittal plane alignment following minimally invasive direct lateral interbody fusion for the treatment of degenerative lumbar disease in adults: a radiographic study. J Neurosurg Spine. 2011 Jul; 15(1):92-6. View in: PubMed

Neal CJ, McClendon J, Halpin R, Acosta FL, Koski T, Ondra SL. Predicting ideal spinopelvic balance in adult spinal deformity. J Neurosurg Spine. 2011 Jul; 15(1):82-91. View in: PubMed

Acosta FL, Sanai N, Cloyd J, Deviren V, Chou D, Ames CP. Treatment of Enneking stage 3 aggressive vertebral hemangiomas with intralesional spondylectomy: report of 10 cases and review of the literature. J Spinal Disord Tech. 2011 Jun; 24(4):268-75. View in: PubMed

Scheer JK, Tang JA, Deviren V, Acosta F, Buckley JM, Pekmezci M, McClellan RT, Ames CP. Biomechanical analysis of cervicothoracic junction osteotomy in cadaveric model of ankylosing spondylitis: effect of rod material and diameter. J Neurosurg Spine. 2011 Mar; 14(3):330-5. View in: PubMed

Koller H, Acosta F, Zenner J, Ferraris L, Hitzl W, Meier O, Ondra S, Koski T, Schmidt R. Spinal surgery in patients with Parkinson's disease: experiences with the challenges posed by sagittal imbalance and the Parkinson's spine. Eur Spine J. 2010 Oct; 19(10):1785-94. View in: PubMed

Koller H, Resch H, Tauber M, Zenner J, Augat P, Penzkofer R, Acosta F, Kolb K, Kathrein A, Hitzl W. A biomechanical rationale for C1-ring osteosynthesis as treatment for displaced Jefferson burst fractures with incompetency of the transverse atlantal ligament. Eur Spine J. 2010 Aug; 19(8):1288-98. View in: PubMed

Cloyd JM, Acosta FL, Polley MY, Ames CP. En bloc resection for primary and metastatic tumors of the spine: a systematic review of the literature. Neurosurgery. 2010 Aug; 67(2):435-44; discussion 444-5. View in: PubMed

Cloyd JM, Acosta FL, Cloyd C, Ames CP. Effects of age on perioperative complications of extensive multilevel thoracolumbar spinal fusion surgery. J Neurosurg Spine. 2010 Apr; 12(4):402-8. View in: PubMed

Koller H, Kolb K, Zenner J, Reynolds J, Dvorak M, Acosta F, Forstner R, Mayer M, Tauber M, Auffarth A, Kathrein A, Hitzl W. Study on accuracy and interobserver reliability of the assessment of odontoid fracture union using plain radiographs or CT scans. Eur Spine J. 2009 Nov; 18(11):1659-68. View in: PubMed

Acosta FL, Cloyd JM, Aryan HE, Ames CP. Patient satisfaction and radiographic outcomes after lumbar spinal fusion without iliac crest bone graft or transverse process fusion. J Clin Neurosci. 2009 Sep; 16(9):1184-7. View in: PubMed

Koller H, Hitzl W, Acosta F, Tauber M, Zenner J, Resch H, Yukawa Y, Meier O, Schmidt R, Mayer M. In vitro study of accuracy of cervical pedicle screw insertion using an electronic conductivity device (ATPS part III). Eur Spine J. 2009 Sep; 18(9):1300-13. View in: PubMed

Koller H, Acosta F, Forstner R, Zenner J, Resch H, Tauber M, Lederer S, Auffarth A, Hitzl W. C2-fractures: part II. A morphometrical analysis of computerized atlantoaxial motion, anatomical alignment and related clinical outcomes. Eur Spine J. 2009 Aug; 18(8):1135-53. View in: PubMed

Koller H, Acosta F, Tauber M, Komarek E, Fox M, Moursy M, Hitzl W, Resch H. C2-fractures: part I. Quantitative morphology of the C2 vertebra is a prerequisite for the radiographic assessment of posttraumatic C2-alignment and the investigation of clinical outcomes. Eur Spine J. 2009 Jul; 18(7):978-91. View in: PubMed

Chou D, Acosta F, Cloyd JM, Ames CP. Parasagittal osteotomy for en bloc resection of multilevel cervical chordomas. J Neurosurg Spine. 2009 May; 10(5):397-403. View in: PubMed

Acosta FL, Cloyd JM, Aryan HE, Ames CP. Perioperative complications and clinical outcomes of multilevel circumferential lumbar spinal fusion in the elderly. J Clin Neurosci. 2009 Jan; 16(1):69-73. View in: PubMed

Koller H, Acosta F, Hempfing A, Rohrmüller D, Tauber M, Lederer S, Resch H, Zenner J, Klampfer H, Schwaiger R, Bogner R, Hitzl W. Long-term investigation of nonsurgical treatment for thoracolumbar and lumbar burst fractures: an outcome analysis in sight of spinopelvic balance. Eur Spine J. 2008 Aug; 17(8):1073-95. View in: PubMed

Cloyd JM, Acosta FL, Ames CP. Complications and outcomes of lumbar spine surgery in elderly people: a review of the literature. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2008 Jul; 56(7):1318-27. View in: PubMed

Acosta FL, Aryan HE, Chou D, Ames CP. Long-term biomechanical stability and clinical improvement after extended multilevel corpectomy and circumferential reconstruction of the cervical spine using titanium mesh cages. J Spinal Disord Tech. 2008 May; 21(3):165-74. View in: PubMed

Acosta FL, Buckley JM, Xu Z, Lotz JC, Ames CP. Biomechanical comparison of three fixation techniques for unstable thoracolumbar burst fractures. Laboratory investigation. J Neurosurg Spine. 2008 Apr; 8(4):341-6. View in: PubMed

Koller H, Hempfing A, Acosta F, Fox M, Scheiter A, Tauber M, Holz U, Resch H, Hitzl W. Cervical anterior transpedicular screw fixation. Part I: Study on morphological feasibility, indications, and technical prerequisites. Eur Spine J. 2008 Apr; 17(4):523-38. View in: PubMed

Koller H, Acosta F, Tauber M, Fox M, Martin H, Forstner R, Augat P, Penzkofer R, Pirich C, Kässmann H, Resch H, Hitzl W. Cervical anterior transpedicular screw fixation (ATPS)--Part II. Accuracy of manual insertion and pull-out strength of ATPS. Eur Spine J. 2008 Apr; 17(4):539-55. View in: PubMed

Aryan HE, Newman CB, Nottmeier EW, Acosta FL, Wang VY, Ames CP. Stabilization of the atlantoaxial complex via C-1 lateral mass and C-2 pedicle screw fixation in a multicenter clinical experience in 102 patients: modification of the Harms and Goel techniques. J Neurosurg Spine. 2008 Mar; 8(3):222-9. View in: PubMed

Meier R, Boddington S, Krug C, Acosta FL, Thullier D, Henning TD, Sutton EJ, Tavri S, Lotz JC, Daldrup-Link HE. Detection of postoperative granulation tissue with an ICG-enhanced integrated OI-/X-ray System. J Transl Med. 2008; 6:73. View in: PubMed

Chi JH, Acosta FL, Aryan HE, Chou D, Ames CP. Partial spondylectomy: modification for lateralized malignant spinal column tumors of the cervical or lumbosacral spine. J Clin Neurosci. 2008 Jan; 15(1):43-8. View in: PubMed

Aryan HE, Acosta FL, Ames CP. Two-level total en bloc lumbar spondylectomy with dural resection for metastatic renal cell carcinoma. J Clin Neurosci. 2008 Jan; 15(1):70-2. View in: PubMed

Acosta FL, Sanai N, Chi JH, Dowd CF, Chin C, Tihan T, Chou D, Weinstein PR, Ames CP. Comprehensive management of symptomatic and aggressive vertebral hemangiomas. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2008 Jan; 19(1):17-29. View in: PubMed

Acosta FL, Christensen FB, Coe JD, Jahng TA, Kitchel SH, Meisel HJ, Schnöring M, Wingo CH, Ames CP. Early Clinical & Radiographic Results of NFix II Posterior Dynamic Stabilization System. SAS J. 2008; 2(2):69-75. View in: PubMed

Aryan HE, Lu DC, Acosta FL, Ames CP. Stand-alone anterior lumbar discectomy and fusion with plate: initial experience. Surg Neurol. 2007 Jul; 68(1):7-13; discussion 13. View in: PubMed

Acosta FL, Ames CP, Chou D. Operative management of adult high-grade lumbosacral spondylolisthesis. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2007 Apr; 18(2):249-54. View in: PubMed

Aryan HE, Lu DC, Acosta FL, Ames CP. Corpectomy followed by the placement of instrumentation with titanium cages and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 for vertebral osteomyelitis. J Neurosurg Spine. 2007 Jan; 6(1):23-30. View in: PubMed

Acosta FL, Aryan HE, Ames CP. Successful outcome of six-level cervicothoracic corpectomy and circumferential reconstruction: case report and review of literature on multilevel cervicothoracic corpectomy. Eur Spine J. 2006 Oct; 15 Suppl 5:670-4. View in: PubMed

Acosta FL, Galvez LF, Aryan HE, Ames CP. Recent advances: infections of the spine. Curr Infect Dis Rep. 2006 Sep; 8(5):390-3. View in: PubMed

Aryan HE, Ames CP, Szandera B, Nguyen AD, Acosta FL, Taylor WR. Coblation of spinal endplates in preparation for interbody spinal fusion. J Clin Neurosci. 2006 Apr; 13(3):349-52. View in: PubMed

Auguste KI, Chin C, Acosta FL, Ames CP. Expandable cylindrical cages in the cervical spine: a review of 22 cases. J Neurosurg Spine. 2006 Apr; 4(4):285-91. View in: PubMed

Acosta FL, Dowd CF, Chin C, Tihan T, Ames CP, Weinstein PR. Current treatment strategies and outcomes in the management of symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas. Neurosurgery. 2006 Feb; 58(2):287-95; discussion 287-95. View in: PubMed

Ames CP, Acosta FL, Chamberlain RH, Larios AE, Crawford NR. Biomechanical analysis of a newly designed bioabsorbable anterior cervical plate. Invited submission from the joint section meeting on disorders of the spine and peripheral nerves, March 2005. J Neurosurg Spine. 2005 Dec; 3(6):465-70. View in: PubMed

Acosta FL, Ames CP. Artificial pedicle screw reconstruction of the cervical spine after lateral paramedian transpedicular approach for lesions of the ventral cervical spinal canal. Neurosurgery. 2005 Oct; 57(4 Suppl):281-5; discussion 281-5. View in: PubMed

Acosta FL, Aryan HE, Ames CP. Emerging directions in motion preservation spinal surgery. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2005 Oct; 16(4):665-9, vii. View in: PubMed

Aryan HE, Acosta FL, Ames CP. The ProDisc artificial disc: insertion technique. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2005 Oct; 16(4):651-6, vii. View in: PubMed

Aryan HE, Acosta FL, Ames CP. The Charité Artificial Disc: insertion technique. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2005 Oct; 16(4):637-50, vii. View in: PubMed

Acosta FL, Ames CP. Cervical disc arthroplasty: general introduction. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2005 Oct; 16(4):603-7, vi. View in: PubMed

Acosta FL, Quinones-Hinojosa A, Gadkary CA, Schmidt MH, Chin CT, Ames CP, Rosenberg WS, Weinstein P. Frameless stereotactic image-guided C1-C2 transarticular screw fixation for atlantoaxial instability: review of 20 patients. J Spinal Disord Tech. 2005 Oct; 18(5):385-91. View in: PubMed

Acosta FL, Lotz J, Ames CP. The potential role of mesenchymal stem cell therapy for intervertebral disc degeneration: a critical overview. Neurosurg Focus. 2005 Sep 15; 19(3):E4. View in: PubMed

Acosta FL, Thompson TL, Campbell S, Weinstein PR, Ames CP. Use of intraoperative isocentric C-arm 3D fluoroscopy for sextant percutaneous pedicle screw placement: case report and review of the literature. Spine J. 2005 May-Jun; 5(3):339-43. View in: PubMed

Acosta FL, Aryan HE, Taylor WR, Ames CP. Kyphoplasty-augmented short-segment pedicle screw fixation of traumatic lumbar burst fractures: initial clinical experience and literature review. Neurosurg Focus. 2005 Mar 15; 18(3):e9. View in: PubMed

Acosta FL, Binder DK, Barkovich AJ, Frieden IJ, Gupta N. Neurocutaneous melanosis presenting with hydrocephalus. Case report and review of the literature. J Neurosurg. 2005 Jan; 102(1 Suppl):96-100. View in: PubMed

Ames CP, Acosta F, Nottmeier E. Novel treatment of basilar invagination resulting from an untreated C-1 fracture associated with transverse ligament avulsion. Case report and description of surgical technique. J Neurosurg Spine. 2005 Jan; 2(1):83-7. View in: PubMed

Parsa AT, Chi JH, Acosta FL, Ames CP, McCormick PC. Intramedullary spinal cord tumors: molecular insights and surgical innovation. Clin Neurosurg. 2005; 52:76-84. View in: PubMed

Acosta FL, Chin CT, Quiñones-Hinojosa A, Ames CP, Weinstein PR, Chou D. Diagnosis and management of adult pyogenic osteomyelitis of the cervical spine. Neurosurg Focus. 2004 Dec 15; 17(6):E2. View in: PubMed

Acosta FL, Quinones-Hinojosa A, Schmidt MH, Weinstein PR. Diagnosis and management of sacral Tarlov cysts. Case report and review of the literature. Neurosurg Focus. 2003 Aug 15; 15(2):E15. View in: PubMed

Ehtesham M, Samoto K, Kabos P, Acosta FL, Gutierrez MA, Black KL, Yu JS. Treatment of intracranial glioma with in situ interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene transfer. Cancer Gene Ther. 2002 Nov; 9(11):925-34. View in: PubMed

Barnes AH, Eguizabal JA, Acosta FL, Lotz JC, Buckley JM, Ames CP. Biomechanical pullout strength and stability of the cervical artificial pedicle screw. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2009 Jan 1; 34(1):E16-20. View in: PubMed

Koller H, Resch H, Acosta F, Zenner J, Schwaiger R, Tauber M, Forstner R, Lederer S, Auffarth A, Hitzl W. Assessment of two measurement techniques of cervical spine and C1-C2 rotation in the outcome research of axis fractures: a morphometrical analysis using dynamic computed tomography scanning. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2010 Feb 1; 35(3):286-90. View in: PubMed

Cloyd JM, Acosta FL, Ames CP. Effect of age on the perioperative and radiographic complications of multilevel cervicothoracic spinal fusions. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2008 Dec 15; 33(26):E977-82. View in: PubMed

Koller H, Zenner J, Hitzl W, Meier O, Ferraris L, Acosta F, Hempfing A. The morbidity of open transthoracic approach for anterior scoliosis correction. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2010 Dec 15; 35(26):E1586-92. View in: PubMed

Cheng I, Acosta F, Chang K, Pham M. Point-Counterpoint: The Use of Neuromonitoring in Lateral Transpsoas Surgery. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2016 Apr; 41 Suppl 8:S145-51. View in: PubMed

Phillips FM, Cheng I, Rampersaud YR, Akbarnia BA, Pimenta L, Rodgers WB, Uribe JS, Khanna N, Smith WD, Youssef JA, Sulaiman WA, Tohmeh A, Cannestra A, Wohns RN, Okonkwo DO, Acosta F, Rodgers EJ, Andersson G. Breaking Through the "Glass Ceiling" of Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2016 Apr; 41 Suppl 8:S39-43. View in: PubMed

Acosta FL, Aryan HE, Chi J, Parsa AT, Ames CP. Modified paramedian transpedicular approach and spinal reconstruction for intradural tumors of the cervical and cervicothoracic spine: clinical experience. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2007 Mar 15; 32(6):E203-10. View in: PubMed

Ames CP, Bozkus MH, Chamberlain RH, Acosta FL, Papadopoulos SM, Sonntag VK, Crawford NR. Biomechanics of stabilization after cervicothoracic compression-flexion injury. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2005 Jul 1; 30(13):1505-12. View in: PubMed

Aryan HE, Lu DC, Acosta FL, Hartl R, McCormick PW, Ames CP. Bioabsorbable anterior cervical plating: initial multicenter clinical and radiographic experience. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2007 May 1; 32(10):1084-8. View in: PubMed

Ames CP, Acosta FL, Chi J, Iyengar J, Muiru W, Acaroglu E, Puttlitz CM. Biomechanical comparison of posterior lumbar interbody fusion and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion performed at 1 and 2 levels. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2005 Oct 1; 30(19):E562-6. View in: PubMed

McClendon J, O'Shaughnessy BA, Sugrue PA, Neal CJ, Acosta FL, Koski TR, Ondra SL. Techniques for operative correction of proximal junctional kyphosis of the upper thoracic spine. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2012 Feb 15; 37(4):292-303. View in: PubMed

Rodriguez AG, Slichter CK, Acosta FL, Rodriguez-Soto AE, Burghardt AJ, Majumdar S, Lotz JC. Human disc nucleus properties and vertebral endplate permeability. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2011 Apr 1; 36(7):512-20. View in: PubMed

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