Faculty

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Richard Sposto, PhD
Professor of Research Preventive Medicine
Preventive Medicine
4650 Sunset Blvd Health Sciences Campus Los Angeles
+1 323 442 8233

Overview

Dr. Richard Sposto holds a joint appointment as Professor of Research in the Department of Preventive Medicine and the Department of Pediatrics of the Keck School of Medicine, USC. He is also currently Director of Biostatistics/Bioinformatics for the Children's Center for Cancer and Blood Diseases, Division of Hematology-Oncology, Childrens Hospital Los Angeles (CHLA). For most of his career Dr. Sposto's primary research focus has been in pediatric cancer research as a senior statistician with the Children's Cancer Group and its successor organization, the Children's Oncology Group (COG). During these times Dr. Sposto was the principal statistician in CCG's research efforts in CNS tumors and lymphomas. He served as COG Associate Group Statistician and COG Group Statistician, and also as principal statistician and coordinator of the Statistics and Data Center in the formation of COG Phase I and Pilot Consortium. In the Fall of 2004 he assumed his current position at CHLA.

Between 1988 and 1992, Dr. Sposto was a Research Scientist in the Department of Statistics at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, in Hiroshima, Japan, and between 1992 and 1994, he was Co-Principal Investigator for the Data Coordinating and Analysis Center of the Aids Vaccine Evaluation Group, a Phase I clinical trials consortium sponsored by the National Institution of Allergy and Infectious Diseases to investigate experimental vaccines for the prevention of HIV infection.

Besides his collaborative work, Dr. Sposto's primary statistical research interests have been in the areas of clinical trials design, especially as related to developmental therapeutics trials in pediatric cancer and strategies for clinical trials research in low incidence cancer; modeling cure as an outcome of cancer treatment, and developing a statistical modeling framework to optimize risk stratification in pediatric cancer.

Publications

Espinoza JC, Haley K, Patel N, Dhall G, Gardner S, Allen J, Torkildson J, Cornelius A, Rassekh R, Bedros A, Etzl M, Garvin J, Pradhan K, Corbett R, Sullivan M, McGowage G, Stein D, Jasty R, Sands SA, Ji L, Sposto R, Finlay JL. Outcome of young children with high-grade glioma treated with irradiation-avoiding intensive chemotherapy regimens: Final report of the Head Start II and III trials. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2016 Oct; 63(10):1806-13. View in: PubMed

Cooper TM, Cassar J, Eckroth E, Malvar J, Sposto R, Gaynon P, Chang BH, Gore L, August K, Pollard JA, DuBois SG, Silverman LB, Oesterheld J, Gammon G, Magoon D, Annesley C, Brown PA. A Phase I Study of Quizartinib Combined with Chemotherapy in Relapsed Childhood Leukemia: A Therapeutic Advances in Childhood Leukemia & Lymphoma (TACL) Study. Clin Cancer Res. 2016 Aug 15; 22(16):4014-22. View in: PubMed

Sposto R, Keegan TH, Vigen C, Kwan ML, Bernstein L, John EM, Cheng I, Yang J, Koo J, Kurian AW, Caan BJ, Lu Y, Monroe KR, Shariff-Marco S, Gomez SL, Wu AH. The Effect of Patient and Contextual Characteristics on Racial/Ethnic Disparity in Breast Cancer Mortality. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2016 Jul; 25(7):1064-72. View in: PubMed

Ater JL, Xia C, Mazewski CM, Booth TN, Freyer DR, Packer RJ, Sposto R, Vezina G, Pollack IF. Nonrandomized comparison of neurofibromatosis type 1 and non-neurofibromatosis type 1 children who received carboplatin and vincristine for progressive low-grade glioma: A report from the Children's Oncology Group. Cancer. 2016 Jun 15; 122(12):1928-36. View in: PubMed

Vigen C, Kwan ML, John EM, Gomez SL, Keegan TH, Lu Y, Shariff-Marco S, Monroe KR, Kurian AW, Cheng I, Caan BJ, Lee VS, Roh JM, Bernstein L, Sposto R, Wu AH. Validation of self-reported comorbidity status of breast cancer patients with medical records: the California Breast Cancer Survivorship Consortium (CBCSC). Cancer Causes Control. 2016 Mar; 27(3):391-401. View in: PubMed

Felsenstein S, Bender JM, Sposto R, Gentry M, Takemoto C, Bard JD. Impact of a Rapid Blood Culture Assay for Gram-Positive Identification and Detection of Resistance Markers in a Pediatric Hospital. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2016 Mar; 140(3):267-75. View in: PubMed

Blüml S, Margol AS, Sposto R, Kennedy RJ, Robison NJ, Vali M, Hung LT, Muthugounder S, Finlay JL, Erdreich-Epstein A, Gilles FH, Judkins AR, Krieger MD, Dhall G, Nelson MD, Asgharzadeh S. Molecular subgroups of medulloblastoma identification using noninvasive magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Neuro Oncol. 2016 Jan; 18(1):126-31. View in: PubMed

Meeske KA, Ji L, Freyer DR, Gaynon P, Ruccione K, Butturini A, Avramis VI, Siegel S, Matloub Y, Seibel NL, Sposto R. Comparative Toxicity by Sex Among Children Treated for Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Report From the Children's Oncology Group. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2015 Dec; 62(12):2140-9. View in: PubMed

Shariff-Marco S, Yang J, John EM, Kurian AW, Cheng I, Leung R, Koo J, Monroe KR, Henderson BE, Bernstein L, Lu Y, Kwan ML, Sposto R, Vigen CL, Wu AH, Keegan TH, Gomez SL. Intersection of Race/Ethnicity and Socioeconomic Status in Mortality After Breast Cancer. J Community Health. 2015 Dec; 40(6):1287-99. View in: PubMed

HaDuong JH, Blavier L, Baniwal SK, Frenkel B, Malvar J, Punj V, Sposto R, DeClerck YA. Interaction between bone marrow stromal cells and neuroblastoma cells leads to a VEGFA-mediated osteoblastogenesis. Int J Cancer. 2015 Aug 15; 137(4):797-809. View in: PubMed

Cheng I, Shariff-Marco S, Koo J, Monroe KR, Yang J, John EM, Kurian AW, Kwan ML, Henderson BE, Bernstein L, Lu Y, Sposto R, Vigen C, Wu AH, Gomez SL, Keegan TH. Contribution of the Neighborhood Environment and Obesity to Breast Cancer Survival: The California Breast Cancer Survivorship Consortium. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2015 Aug; 24(8):1282-90. View in: PubMed

Sun W, Gaynon PS, Sposto R, Wayne AS. Improving access to novel agents for childhood leukemia. Cancer. 2015 Jun 15; 121(12):1927-36. View in: PubMed

Lu Y, John EM, Sullivan-Halley J, Vigen C, Gomez SL, Kwan ML, Caan BJ, Lee VS, Roh JM, Shariff-Marco S, Keegan TH, Kurian AW, Monroe KR, Cheng I, Sposto R, Wu AH, Bernstein L. History of Recreational Physical Activity and Survival After Breast Cancer: The California Breast Cancer Survivorship Consortium. Am J Epidemiol. 2015 Jun 15; 181(12):944-55. View in: PubMed

De A, Kamath S, Wong K, Olch AJ, Malvar J, Sposto R, Mascarenhas L, Keens TG, Venkatramani R. Correlation of pulmonary function abnormalities with dose volume histograms in children treated with lung irradiation. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2015 Jun; 50(6):596-603. View in: PubMed

Sheard MA, Ghent MV, Cabral DJ, Lee JC, Khankaldyyan V, Ji L, Wu SQ, Kang MH, Sposto R, Asgharzadeh S, Reynolds CP. Preservation of high glycolytic phenotype by establishing new acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell lines at physiologic oxygen concentration. Exp Cell Res. 2015 May 15; 334(1):78-89. View in: PubMed

Margol AS, Robison NJ, Gnanachandran J, Hung LT, Kennedy RJ, Vali M, Dhall G, Finlay JL, Erdreich-Epstein A, Krieger MD, Drissi R, Fouladi M, Gilles FH, Judkins AR, Sposto R, Asgharzadeh S. Tumor-Associated Macrophages in SHH Subgroup of Medulloblastomas. Clin Cancer Res. 2015 Mar 15; 21(6):1457-65. View in: PubMed

Wu E, Rogers A, Ji L, Sposto R, Church T, Roman L, Tripathy D, Lin YG. Escalation of oncologic services at the end of life among patients with gynecologic cancer at an urban, public hospital. J Oncol Pract. 2015 Mar; 11(2):e163-9. View in: PubMed

Wu AH, Kurian AW, Kwan ML, John EM, Lu Y, Keegan TH, Gomez SL, Cheng I, Shariff-Marco S, Caan BJ, Lee VS, Sullivan-Halley J, Tseng CC, Bernstein L, Sposto R, Vigen C. Diabetes and Other Comorbidities in Breast Cancer Survival by Race/Ethnicity: The California Breast Cancer Survivorship Consortium (CBCSC). Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2015 Feb; 24(2):361-8. View in: PubMed

Orgel E, Tucci J, Alhushki W, Malvar J, Sposto R, Fu CH, Freyer DR, Abdel-Azim H, Mittelman SD. Obesity is associated with residual leukemia following induction therapy for childhood B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Blood. 2014 Dec 18; 124(26):3932-8. View in: PubMed

Solari V, Borriello L, Turcatel G, Shimada H, Sposto R, Fernandez GE, Asgharzadeh S, Yates EA, Turnbull JE, DeClerck YA. MYCN-Dependent Expression of Sulfatase-2 Regulates Neuroblastoma Cell Survival. Cancer Res. 2014 Nov 1; 74(21):5999-6009. View in: PubMed

Felsenstein S, Faddoul D, Sposto R, Batoon K, Polanco CM, Dien Bard J. Molecular and clinical diagnosis of group a streptococcal pharyngitis in children. J Clin Microbiol. 2014 Nov; 52(11):3884-9. View in: PubMed

Ruccione KS, Wood JC, Sposto R, Malvar J, Chen C, Freyer DR. Characterization of transfusion-derived iron deposition in childhood cancer survivors. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2014 Sep; 23(9):1913-9. View in: PubMed

Raetz EA, Morrison D, Romanos-Sirakis E, Gaynon P, Sposto R, Bhojwani D, Bostrom BC, Brown P, Eckroth E, Cassar J, Malvar J, Buchbinder A, Carroll WL. A Phase I Study of EZN-3042, a Novel Survivin Messenger Ribonucleic Acid (mRNA) Antagonist, Administered in Combination With Chemotherapy in Children With Relapsed Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL): A Report From the Therapeutic Advances in Childhood Leukemia and Lymphoma (TACL) Consortium. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2014 Aug; 36(6):458-63. View in: PubMed

Antony R, Wong KE, Patel M, Olch AJ, McComb G, Krieger M, Gilles F, Sposto R, Erdreich-Epstein A, Dhall G, Gardner S, Finlay JL. A retrospective analysis of recurrent intracranial ependymoma. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2014 Jul; 61(7):1195-201. View in: PubMed

Venkatramani R, Kamath S, Wong K, Olch AJ, Malvar J, Sposto R, Goodarzian F, Freyer DR, Keens TG, Mascarenhas L. Pulmonary outcomes in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma treated with involved field radiation. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2014 Jul; 61(7):1277-81. View in: PubMed

Orgel E, Sposto R, Malvar J, Seibel NL, Ladas E, Gaynon PS, Freyer DR. Impact on Survival and Toxicity by Duration of Weight Extremes During Treatment for Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Report From the Children's Oncology Group. J Clin Oncol. 2014 May 1; 32(13):1331-7. View in: PubMed

Puliyel M, Sposto R, Berdoukas VA, Hofstra TC, Nord A, Carson S, Wood J, Coates TD. Ferritin trends do not predict changes in total body iron in patients with transfusional iron overload. Am J Hematol. 2014 Apr; 89(4):391-4. View in: PubMed

Erdreich-Epstein A, Robison N, Ren X, Zhou H, Xu J, Davidson TB, Schur M, Gilles FH, Ji L, Malvar J, Shackleford GM, Margol AS, Krieger MD, Judkins AR, Jones DT, Pfister SM, Kool M, Sposto R, Asgharazadeh S. PID1 (NYGGF4), a New Growth-Inhibitory Gene in Embryonal Brain Tumors and Gliomas. Clin Cancer Res. 2014 Feb 15; 20(4):827-36. View in: PubMed

Kwan ML, John EM, Caan BJ, Lee VS, Bernstein L, Cheng I, Gomez SL, Henderson BE, Keegan TH, Kurian AW, Lu Y, Monroe KR, Roh JM, Shariff-Marco S, Sposto R, Vigen C, Wu AH. Obesity and mortality after breast cancer by race/ethnicity: the california breast cancer survivorship consortium. Am J Epidemiol. 2014 Jan 1; 179(1):95-111. View in: PubMed

Kim MY, Sposto R, Swaika A, Asano H, Alamgir A, Chanan-Khan A, Ailawadhi S. Pharmacoeconomic implications of lenalidomide maintenance therapy in multiple myeloma. Oncology. 2014; 87(4):224-31. View in: PubMed

Kang MH, Villablanca JG, Glade Bender JL, Matthay KK, Groshen S, Sposto R, Czarnecki S, Ames MM, Reynolds CP, Marachelian A, Maurer BJ. Probable fatal drug interaction between intravenous fenretinide, ceftriaxone, and acetaminophen: a case report from a New Approaches to Neuroblastoma (NANT) Phase I study. BMC Res Notes. 2014; 7(1):256. View in: PubMed

Zaky W, Dhall G, Ji L, Haley K, Allen J, Atlas M, Bertolone S, Cornelius A, Gardner S, Patel R, Pradhan K, Shen V, Thompson S, Torkildson J, Sposto R, Finlay JL. Intensive induction chemotherapy followed by myeloablative chemotherapy with autologous hematopoietic progenitor cell rescue for young children newly-diagnosed with central nervous system atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors: The head start III experience. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2014 Jan; 61(1):95-101. View in: PubMed

Xu Y, Sun J, Sheard MA, Tran HC, Wan Z, Liu WY, Asgharzadeh S, Sposto R, Wu HW, Seeger RC. Lenalidomide overcomes suppression of human natural killer cell anti-tumor functions by neuroblastoma microenvironment-associated IL-6 and TGFß1. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2013 Oct; 62(10):1637-48. View in: PubMed

Wu AH, Gomez SL, Vigen C, Kwan ML, Keegan TH, Lu Y, Shariff-Marco S, Monroe KR, Kurian AW, Cheng I, Caan BJ, Lee VS, Roh JM, Sullivan-Halley J, Henderson BE, Bernstein L, John EM, Sposto R. The California Breast Cancer Survivorship Consortium (CBCSC): prognostic factors associated with racial/ethnic differences in breast cancer survival. Cancer Causes Control. 2013 Oct; 24(10):1821-36. View in: PubMed

Kreissman SG, Seeger RC, Matthay KK, London WB, Sposto R, Grupp SA, Haas-Kogan DA, Laquaglia MP, Yu AL, Diller L, Buxton A, Park JR, Cohn SL, Maris JM, Reynolds CP, Villablanca JG. Purged versus non-purged peripheral blood stem-cell transplantation for high-risk neuroblastoma (COG A3973): a randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2013 Sep; 14(10):999-1008. View in: PubMed

Venkatramani R, Kamath S, Wong K, Olch AJ, Malvar J, Sposto R, Goodarzian F, Freyer DR, Keens TG, Mascarenhas L. Correlation of clinical and dosimetric factors with adverse pulmonary outcomes in children after lung irradiation. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2013 Aug 1; 86(5):942-8. View in: PubMed

Mascarenhas L, Malogolowkin M, Armenian SH, Sposto R, Venkatramani R. A phase I study of oxaliplatin and doxorubicin in pediatric patients with relapsed or refractory extracranial non-hematopoietic solid tumors. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2013 Jul; 60(7):1103-7. View in: PubMed

Venkatramani R, Ji L, Lasky J, Haley K, Judkins A, Zhou S, Sposto R, Olshefski R, Garvin J, Tekautz T, Kennedy G, Rassekh SR, Moore T, Gardner S, Allen J, Shore R, Moertel C, Atlas M, Dhall G, Finlay J. Outcome of infants and young children with newly diagnosed ependymoma treated on the "Head Start" III prospective clinical trial. J Neurooncol. 2013 Jun; 113(2):285-91. View in: PubMed

Zwaan CM, Sposto R. Cure trends in acute lymphoblastic leukemia: is it time for a revised concept of cure? Haematologica. 2013 May; 98(5):655-6. View in: PubMed

Liu Y, Wu HW, Sheard MA, Sposto R, Somanchi SS, Cooper LJ, Lee DA, Seeger RC. Growth and activation of natural killer cells ex vivo from children with neuroblastoma for adoptive cell therapy. Clin Cancer Res. 2013 Apr 15; 19(8):2132-43. View in: PubMed

Pugh TJ, Morozova O, Attiyeh EF, Asgharzadeh S, Wei JS, Auclair D, Carter SL, Cibulskis K, Hanna M, Kiezun A, Kim J, Lawrence MS, Lichenstein L, McKenna A, Pedamallu CS, Ramos AH, Shefler E, Sivachenko A, Sougnez C, Stewart C, Ally A, Birol I, Chiu R, Corbett RD, Hirst M, Jackman SD, Kamoh B, Khodabakshi AH, Krzywinski M, Lo A, Moore RA, Mungall KL, Qian J, Tam A, Thiessen N, Zhao Y, Cole KA, Diamond M, Diskin SJ, Mosse YP, Wood AC, Ji L, Sposto R, Badgett T, London WB, Moyer Y, Gastier-Foster JM, Smith MA, Auvil JM, Gerhard DS, Hogarty MD, Jones SJ, Lander ES, Gabriel SB, Getz G, Seeger RC, Khan J, Marra MA, Meyerson M, Maris JM. The genetic landscape of high-risk neuroblastoma. Nat Genet. 2013 Mar; 45(3):279-84. View in: PubMed

Gerrard M, Waxman IM, Sposto R, Auperin A, Perkins SL, Goldman S, Harrison L, Pinkerton R, McCarthy K, Raphael M, Patte C, Cairo MS. Outcome and pathologic classification of children and adolescents with mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma treated with FAB/LMB96 mature B-NHL therapy. Blood. 2013 Jan 10; 121(2):278-85. View in: PubMed

Venkatramani R, Malogolowkin M, Davidson TB, May W, Sposto R, Mascarenhas L. A phase I study of vincristine, irinotecan, temozolomide and bevacizumab (vitb) in pediatric patients with relapsed solid tumors. PLoS One. 2013; 8(7):e68416. View in: PubMed

Garvin JH, Selch MT, Holmes E, Berger MS, Finlay JL, Flannery A, Goldwein JW, Packer RJ, Rorke-Adams LB, Shiminski-Maher T, Sposto R, Stanley P, Tannous R, Pollack IF. Phase II study of pre-irradiation chemotherapy for childhood intracranial ependymoma. Children's Cancer Group protocol 9942: a report from the Children's Oncology Group. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2012 Dec 15; 59(7):1183-9. View in: PubMed

Secola R, Azen C, Lewis MA, Pike N, Needleman J, Sposto R, Doering L. A crossover randomized prospective pilot study evaluating a central venous catheter team in reducing catheter-related bloodstream infections in pediatric oncology patients. J Pediatr Oncol Nurs. 2012 Nov; 29(6):307-15. View in: PubMed

Ruccione KS, Mudambi K, Sposto R, Fridey J, Ghazarossian S, Freyer DR. Association of projected transfusional iron burden with treatment intensity in childhood cancer survivors. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2012 Oct; 59(4):697-702. View in: PubMed

Asgharzadeh S, Salo JA, Ji L, Oberthuer A, Fischer M, Berthold F, Hadjidaniel M, Liu CW, Metelitsa LS, Pique-Regi R, Wakamatsu P, Villablanca JG, Kreissman SG, Matthay KK, Shimada H, London WB, Sposto R, Seeger RC. Clinical significance of tumor-associated inflammatory cells in metastatic neuroblastoma. J Clin Oncol. 2012 Oct 1; 30(28):3525-32. View in: PubMed

Wolden SL, Chen L, Kelly KM, Herzog P, Gilchrist GS, Thomson J, Sposto R, Kadin ME, Hutchinson RJ, Nachman J. Long-Term Results of CCG 5942: A Randomized Comparison of Chemotherapy With and Without Radiotherapy for Children With Hodgkin's Lymphoma--A Report From the Children's Oncology Group. J Clin Oncol. 2012 Sep 10; 30(26):3174-80. View in: PubMed

Venkatramani R, Wang L, Malvar J, Dias D, Sposto R, Malogolowkin MH, Mascarenhas L. Tumor necrosis predicts survival following neo-adjuvant chemotherapy for hepatoblastoma. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2012 Sep; 59(3):493-8. View in: PubMed

Ater JL, Zhou T, Holmes E, Mazewski CM, Booth TN, Freyer DR, Lazarus KH, Packer RJ, Prados M, Sposto R, Vezina G, Wisoff JH, Pollack IF. Randomized Study of Two Chemotherapy Regimens for Treatment of Low-Grade Glioma in Young Children: A Report From the Children's Oncology Group. J Clin Oncol. 2012 Jul 20; 30(21):2641-7. View in: PubMed

Messinger YH, Gaynon PS, Sposto R, van der Giessen J, Eckroth E, Malvar J, Bostrom BC. Bortezomib with chemotherapy is highly active in advanced B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia: Therapeutic Advances in Childhood Leukemia & Lymphoma (TACL) Study. Blood. 2012 Jul 12; 120(2):285-90. View in: PubMed

Valente SA, Levine GM, Silverstein MJ, Rayhanabad JA, Weng-Grumley JG, Ji L, Holmes DR, Sposto R, Sener SF. Accuracy of predicting axillary lymph node positivity by physical examination, mammography, ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Ann Surg Oncol. 2012 Jun; 19(6):1825-30. View in: PubMed

Silverman AM, Nakata R, Shimada H, Sposto R, Declerck YA. A galectin-3-dependent pathway upregulates interleukin-6 in the microenvironment of human neuroblastoma. Cancer Res. 2012 May 1; 72(9):2228-38. View in: PubMed

Marachelian A, Shimada H, Sano H, Jackson H, Stein J, Sposto R, Matthay KK, Baker D, Villablanca JG. The significance of serial histopathology in a residual mass for outcome of intermediate risk stage 3 neuroblastoma. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2012 May; 58(5):675-81. View in: PubMed

Cairo MS, Sposto R, Gerrard M, Auperin A, Goldman SC, Harrison L, Pinkerton R, Raphael M, McCarthy K, Perkins SL, Patte C. Advanced Stage, Increased Lactate Dehydrogenase, and Primary Site, but Not Adolescent Age (>= 15 Years), Are Associated With an Increased Risk of Treatment Failure in Children and Adolescents With Mature B-Cell Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma: Results of the FAB LMB 96 Study. J Clin Oncol. 2012 Feb 1; 30(4):387-93. View in: PubMed

Lones MA, Raphael M, McCarthy K, Wotherspoon A, Terrier-Lacombe MJ, Ramsay AD, Maclennan K, Cairo MS, Gerrard M, Michon J, Patte C, Pinkerton R, Sender L, Auperin A, Sposto R, Weston C, Heerema NA, Sanger WG, von Allmen D, Perkins SL. Primary follicular lymphoma of the testis in children and adolescents. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2012 Jan; 34(1):68-71. View in: PubMed

O'Neil S, Ji L, Buranahirun C, Azoff J, Dhall G, Khatua S, Patel S, Panigrahy A, Borchert M, Sposto R, Finlay J. Neurocognitive outcomes in pediatric and adolescent patients with central nervous system germinoma treated with a strategy of chemotherapy followed by reduced-dose and volume irradiation. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2011 Oct; 57(4):669-73. View in: PubMed

Sposto R, Groshen S. A wide-spectrum paired comparison of the properties of the Rolling 6 and 3+3 Phase I study designs. Contemp Clin Trials. 2011 Sep; 32(5):694-703. View in: PubMed

Wisoff JH, Sanford RA, Heier LA, Sposto R, Burger PC, Yates AJ, Holmes EJ, Kun LE. Primary neurosurgery for pediatric low-grade gliomas: a prospective multi-institutional study from the Children's Oncology Group. Neurosurgery. 2011 Jun; 68(6):1548-54; discussion 1554-5. View in: PubMed

Kelly KM, Sposto R, Hutchinson R, Massey V, McCarten K, Perkins S, Lones M, Villaluna D, Weiner M. BEACOPP chemotherapy is a highly effective regimen in children and adolescents with high-risk Hodgkin lymphoma: a report from the Children's Oncology Group. Blood. 2011 Mar 3; 117(9):2596-603. View in: PubMed

Quach A, Ji L, Mishra V, Sznewajs A, Veatch J, Huberty J, Franc B, Sposto R, Groshen S, Wei D, Fitzgerald P, Maris JM, Yanik G, Hawkins RA, Villablanca JG, Matthay KK. Thyroid and hepatic function after high-dose 131 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (131 I-MIBG) therapy for neuroblastoma. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2011 Feb; 56(2):191-201. View in: PubMed

Cooper A, van Doorninck J, Ji L, Russell D, Ladanyi M, Shimada H, Krailo M, Womer RB, Hsu JH, Thomas D, Triche TJ, Sposto R, Lawlor ER. Ewing tumors that do not overexpress BMI-1 are a distinct molecular subclass with variant biology: a report from the Children's Oncology Group. Clin Cancer Res. 2011 Jan 1; 17(1):56-66. View in: PubMed

Huang JM, Sheard MA, Ji L, Sposto R, Keshelava N. Combination of vorinostat and flavopiridol is selectively cytotoxic to multidrug-resistant neuroblastoma cell lines with mutant TP53. Mol Cancer Ther. 2010 Dec; 9(12):3289-301. View in: PubMed

Gruber TA, Chang MS, Sposto R, Müschen M. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase accelerates clonal evolution in BCR-ABL1-driven B-cell lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Cancer Res. 2010 Oct 1; 70(19):7411-20. View in: PubMed

Gorman MF, Ji L, Ko RH, Barnette P, Bostrom B, Hutchinson R, Raetz E, Seibel NL, Twist CJ, Eckroth E, Sposto R, Gaynon PS, Loh ML. Outcome for children treated for relapsed or refractory acute myelogenous leukemia (rAML): a Therapeutic Advances in Childhood Leukemia (TACL) Consortium study. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2010 Sep; 55(3):421-9. View in: PubMed

Messinger Y, Gaynon P, Raetz E, Hutchinson R, Dubois S, Glade-Bender J, Sposto R, van der Giessen J, Eckroth E, Bostrom BC. Phase I study of bortezomib combined with chemotherapy in children with relapsed childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL): a report from the therapeutic advances in childhood leukemia (TACL) consortium. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2010 Aug; 55(2):254-9. View in: PubMed

Khatua S, Dhall G, O'Neil S, Jubran R, Villablanca JG, Marachelian A, Nastia A, Lavey R, Olch AJ, Gonzalez I, Gilles F, Nelson M, Panigrahy A, McComb G, Krieger M, Fan J, Sposto R, Finlay JL. Treatment of primary CNS germinomatous germ cell tumors with chemotherapy prior to reduced dose whole ventricular and local boost irradiation. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2010 Jul 15; 55(1):42-6. View in: PubMed

Horton TM, Sposto R, Brown P, Reynolds CP, Hunger SP, Winick NJ, Raetz EA, Carroll WL, Arceci RJ, Borowitz MJ, Gaynon PS, Gore L, Jeha S, Maurer BJ, Siegel SE, Biondi A, Kearns PR, Narendran A, Silverman LB, Smith MA, Zwaan CM, Whitlock JA. Toxicity assessment of molecularly targeted drugs incorporated into multiagent chemotherapy regimens for pediatric acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL): review from an international consensus conference. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2010 Jul 1; 54(7):872-8. View in: PubMed

Sposto R. Commentary on paper, 'cancer survival analysis'. Surg Oncol. 2010 Jun; 19(2):59-60; discussion 61. View in: PubMed

van Doorninck JA, Ji L, Schaub B, Shimada H, Wing MR, Krailo MD, Lessnick SL, Marina N, Triche TJ, Sposto R, Womer RB, Lawlor ER. Current treatment protocols have eliminated the prognostic advantage of type 1 fusions in Ewing sarcoma: a report from the Children's Oncology Group. J Clin Oncol. 2010 Apr 20; 28(12):1989-94. View in: PubMed

Wells EM, Khademian ZP, Walsh KS, Vezina G, Sposto R, Keating RF, Packer RJ. Postoperative cerebellar mutism syndrome following treatment of medulloblastoma: neuroradiographic features and origin. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2010 Apr; 5(4):329-34. View in: PubMed

Song HR, Gonzalez-Gomez I, Suh GS, Commins DL, Sposto R, Gilles FH, Deneen B, Erdreich-Epstein A. Nuclear factor IA is expressed in astrocytomas and is associated with improved survival. Neuro Oncol. 2010 Feb; 12(2):122-32. View in: PubMed

Ko RH, Ji L, Barnette P, Bostrom B, Hutchinson R, Raetz E, Seibel NL, Twist CJ, Eckroth E, Sposto R, Gaynon PS, Loh ML. Outcome of patients treated for relapsed or refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a Therapeutic Advances in Childhood Leukemia Consortium study. J Clin Oncol. 2010 Feb 1; 28(4):648-54. View in: PubMed

Meeske KA, Siegel SE, Gilsanz V, Bernstein L, Nelson MB, Sposto R, Weaver FA, Lavey RS, Mack MP, Nelson MD. Premature carotid artery disease in pediatric cancer survivors treated with neck irradiation. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2009 Oct; 53(4):615-21. View in: PubMed

Sposto R, Gaynon PS. An adjustment for patient heterogeneity in the design of two-stage phase II trials. Stat Med. 2009 Sep 10; 28(20):2566-79. View in: PubMed

Schwartz CL, Constine LS, Villaluna D, London WB, Hutchison RE, Sposto R, Lipshultz SE, Turner CS, deAlarcon PA, Chauvenet A. A risk-adapted, response-based approach using ABVE-PC for children and adolescents with intermediate- and high-risk Hodgkin lymphoma: the results of P9425. Blood. 2009 Sep 3; 114(10):2051-9. View in: PubMed

Allen J, Donahue B, Mehta M, Miller DC, Rorke LB, Jakacki R, Robertson P, Sposto R, Holmes E, Vezina G, Muraszko K, Puccetti D, Prados M, Chan KW. A phase II study of preradiotherapy chemotherapy followed by hyperfractionated radiotherapy for newly diagnosed high-risk medulloblastoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor: a report from the Children's Oncology Group (CCG 9931). Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2009 Jul 15; 74(4):1006-11. View in: PubMed

Song L, Asgharzadeh S, Salo J, Engell K, Wu HW, Sposto R, Ara T, Silverman AM, DeClerck YA, Seeger RC, Metelitsa LS. Valpha24-invariant NKT cells mediate antitumor activity via killing of tumor-associated macrophages. J Clin Invest. 2009 Jun; 119(6):1524-36. View in: PubMed

Lowe EJ, Sposto R, Perkins SL, Gross TG, Finlay J, Zwick D, Abromowitch M. Intensive chemotherapy for systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma in children and adolescents: final results of Children's Cancer Group Study 5941. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2009 Mar; 52(3):335-9. View in: PubMed

Armenian SH, Sun CL, Francisco L, Steinberger J, Kurian S, Wong FL, Sharp J, Sposto R, Forman SJ, Bhatia S. Late congestive heart failure after hematopoietic cell transplantation. J Clin Oncol. 2008 Dec 1; 26(34):5537-43. View in: PubMed

Kim A, Ji L, Balmaceda C, Diez B, Kellie SJ, Dunkel IJ, Gardner SL, Sposto R, Finlay JL. The prognostic value of tumor markers in newly diagnosed patients with primary central nervous system germ cell tumors. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2008 Dec; 51(6):768-73. View in: PubMed

Abromowitch M, Sposto R, Perkins S, Zwick D, Siegel S, Finlay J, Cairo MS. Shortened intensified multi-agent chemotherapy and non-cross resistant maintenance therapy for advanced lymphoblastic lymphoma in children and adolescents: report from the Children's Oncology Group. Br J Haematol. 2008 Oct; 143(2):261-7. View in: PubMed

Miles RR, Raphael M, McCarthy K, Wotherspoon A, Lones MA, Terrier-Lacombe MJ, Patte C, Gerrard M, Auperin A, Sposto R, Davenport V, Cairo MS, Perkins SL. Pediatric diffuse large B-cell lymphoma demonstrates a high proliferation index, frequent c-Myc protein expression, and a high incidence of germinal center subtype: Report of the French-American-British (FAB) international study group. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2008 Sep; 51(3):369-74. View in: PubMed

Dhall G, Grodman H, Ji L, Sands S, Gardner S, Dunkel IJ, McCowage GB, Diez B, Allen JC, Gopalan A, Cornelius AS, Termuhlen A, Abromowitch M, Sposto R, Finlay JL. Outcome of children less than three years old at diagnosis with non-metastatic medulloblastoma treated with chemotherapy on the "Head Start" I and II protocols. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2008 Jun; 50(6):1169-75. View in: PubMed

Gerrard M, Cairo MS, Weston C, Auperin A, Pinkerton R, Lambilliote A, Sposto R, McCarthy K, Lacombe MJ, Perkins SL, Patte C. Excellent survival following two courses of COPAD chemotherapy in children and adolescents with resected localized B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: results of the FAB/LMB 96 international study. Br J Haematol. 2008 Jun; 141(6):840-7. View in: PubMed

Kang MH, Wan Z, Kang YH, Sposto R, Reynolds CP. Mechanism of synergy of N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide and ABT-737 in acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell lines: Mcl-1 inactivation. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2008 Apr 16; 100(8):580-95. View in: PubMed

Zacharoulis S, Ji L, Pollack IF, Duffner P, Geyer R, Grill J, Schild S, Jaing TH, Massimino M, Finlay J, Sposto R. Metastatic ependymoma: a multi-institutional retrospective analysis of prognostic factors. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2008 Feb; 50(2):231-5. View in: PubMed

Panigrahy A, Nelson MD, Finlay JL, Sposto R, Krieger MD, Gilles FH, Blüml S. Metabolism of diffuse intrinsic brainstem gliomas in children. Neuro Oncol. 2008 Feb; 10(1):32-44. View in: PubMed

Fangusaro J, Finlay J, Sposto R, Ji L, Saly M, Zacharoulis S, Asgharzadeh S, Abromowitch M, Olshefski R, Halpern S, Dubowy R, Comito M, Diez B, Kellie S, Hukin J, Rosenblum M, Dunkel I, Miller DC, Allen J, Gardner S. Intensive chemotherapy followed by consolidative myeloablative chemotherapy with autologous hematopoietic cell rescue (AuHCR) in young children with newly diagnosed supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors (sPNETs): report of the Head Start I and II experience. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2008 Feb; 50(2):312-8. View in: PubMed

Harned TM, Kalous O, Neuwelt A, Loera J, Ji L, Iovine P, Sposto R, Neuwelt EA, Reynolds CP. Sodium thiosulfate administered six hours after cisplatin does not compromise antineuroblastoma activity. Clin Cancer Res. 2008 Jan 15; 14(2):533-40. View in: PubMed

Song L, Ara T, Wu HW, Woo CW, Reynolds CP, Seeger RC, DeClerck YA, Thiele CJ, Sposto R, Metelitsa LS. Oncogene MYCN regulates localization of NKT cells to the site of disease in neuroblastoma. J Clin Invest. 2007 Sep; 117(9):2702-12. View in: PubMed

Miles RR, Cairo MS, Satwani P, Zwick DL, Lones MA, Sposto R, Abromovitch M, Tripp S, Angiolillo AL, Roman E, Davenport V, Perkins SL. Immunophenotypic identification of possible therapeutic targets in paediatric non-Hodgkin lymphomas: a children's oncology group report. Br J Haematol. 2007 Aug; 138(4):506-12. View in: PubMed

Keshelava N, Davicioni E, Wan Z, Ji L, Sposto R, Triche TJ, Reynolds CP. Histone deacetylase 1 gene expression and sensitization of multidrug-resistant neuroblastoma cell lines to cytotoxic agents by depsipeptide. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2007 Jul 18; 99(14):1107-19. View in: PubMed

Zacharoulis S, Levy A, Chi SN, Gardner S, Rosenblum M, Miller DC, Dunkel I, Diez B, Sposto R, Ji L, Asgharzadeh S, Hukin J, Belasco J, Dubowy R, Kellie S, Termuhlen A, Finlay J. Outcome for young children newly diagnosed with ependymoma, treated with intensive induction chemotherapy followed by myeloablative chemotherapy and autologous stem cell rescue. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2007 Jul; 49(1):34-40. View in: PubMed

Sposto R, London WB, Alonzo TA. Criteria for optimizing prognostic risk groups in pediatric cancer: analysis of data from the Children's Oncology Group. J Clin Oncol. 2007 May 20; 25(15):2070-7. View in: PubMed

Teot LA, Sposto R, Khayat A, Qualman S, Reaman G, Parham D. The problems and promise of central pathology review: development of a standardized procedure for the Children's Oncology Group. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2007 May-Jun; 10(3):199-207. View in: PubMed

Cairo MS, Gerrard M, Sposto R, Auperin A, Pinkerton CR, Michon J, Weston C, Perkins SL, Raphael M, McCarthy K, Patte C. Results of a randomized international study of high-risk central nervous system B non-Hodgkin lymphoma and B acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children and adolescents. Blood. 2007 Apr 1; 109(7):2736-43. View in: PubMed

Patte C, Auperin A, Gerrard M, Michon J, Pinkerton R, Sposto R, Weston C, Raphael M, Perkins SL, McCarthy K, Cairo MS. Results of the randomized international FAB/LMB96 trial for intermediate risk B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma in children and adolescents: it is possible to reduce treatment for the early responding patients. Blood. 2007 Apr 1; 109(7):2773-80. View in: PubMed

Flores-Delgado G, Liu CW, Sposto R, Berndt N. A limited screen for protein interactions reveals new roles for protein phosphatase 1 in cell cycle control and apoptosis. J Proteome Res. 2007 Mar; 6(3):1165-75. View in: PubMed

Tebbi CK, London WB, Friedman D, Villaluna D, De Alarcon PA, Constine LS, Mendenhall NP, Sposto R, Chauvenet A, Schwartz CL. Dexrazoxane-associated risk for acute myeloid leukemia/myelodysplastic syndrome and other secondary malignancies in pediatric Hodgkin's disease. J Clin Oncol. 2007 Feb 10; 25(5):493-500. View in: PubMed

Lones MA, Heerema NA, Le Beau MM, Sposto R, Perkins SL, Kadin ME, Kjeldsberg CR, Meadows A, Siegel S, Buckley J, Abromowitch M, Kersey J, Bergeron S, Cairo MS, Sanger WG. Chromosome abnormalities in advanced stage lymphoblastic lymphoma of children and adolescents: a report from CCG-E08. Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2007 Jan 1; 172(1):1-11. View in: PubMed

Lones MA, Heerema NA, Le Beau MM, Perkins SL, Kadin ME, Kjeldsberg CR, Sposto R, Meadows A, Siegel S, Buckley J, Finlay J, Abromowitch M, Cairo MS, Sanger WG. Complex secondary chromosome abnormalities in advanced stage anaplastic large cell lymphoma of children and adolescents: a report from CCG-E08. Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2006 Dec; 171(2):89-96. View in: PubMed

Robertson PL, Muraszko KM, Holmes EJ, Sposto R, Packer RJ, Gajjar A, Dias MS, Allen JC. Incidence and severity of postoperative cerebellar mutism syndrome in children with medulloblastoma: a prospective study by the Children's Oncology Group. J Neurosurg. 2006 Dec; 105(6 Suppl):444-51. View in: PubMed

Asgharzadeh S, Pique-Regi R, Sposto R, Wang H, Yang Y, Shimada H, Matthay K, Buckley J, Ortega A, Seeger RC. Prognostic significance of gene expression profiles of metastatic neuroblastomas lacking MYCN gene amplification. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2006 Sep 6; 98(17):1193-203. View in: PubMed

Packer RJ, Gajjar A, Vezina G, Rorke-Adams L, Burger PC, Robertson PL, Bayer L, LaFond D, Donahue BR, Marymont MH, Muraszko K, Langston J, Sposto R. Phase III study of craniospinal radiation therapy followed by adjuvant chemotherapy for newly diagnosed average-risk medulloblastoma. J Clin Oncol. 2006 Sep 1; 24(25):4202-8. View in: PubMed

Lones MA, Raphael M, Perkins SL, Wotherspoon A, Auperin A, Terrier-Lacombe MJ, Sposto R, Weston C, Gerrard M, Patte C, Cairo MS, McCarthy K. Mature B-cell lymphoma in children and adolescents: International group pathologist consensus correlates with histology technical quality. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2006 Sep; 28(9):568-74. View in: PubMed

MacDonald TJ, Arenson EB, Ater J, Sposto R, Bevan HE, Bruner J, Deutsch M, Kurczynski E, Luerssen T, McGuire-Cullen P, O'Brien R, Shah N, Steinbok P, Strain J, Thomson J, Holmes E, Vezina G, Yates A, Phillips P, Packer R. Phase II study of high-dose chemotherapy before radiation in children with newly diagnosed high-grade astrocytoma: final analysis of Children's Cancer Group Study 9933. Cancer. 2005 Dec 15; 104(12):2862-71. View in: PubMed

Geyer JR, Sposto R, Jennings M, Boyett JM, Axtell RA, Breiger D, Broxson E, Donahue B, Finlay JL, Goldwein JW, Heier LA, Johnson D, Mazewski C, Miller DC, Packer R, Puccetti D, Radcliffe J, Tao ML, Shiminski-Maher T. Multiagent chemotherapy and deferred radiotherapy in infants with malignant brain tumors: a report from the Children's Cancer Group. J Clin Oncol. 2005 Oct 20; 23(30):7621-31. View in: PubMed

Hiotis K, Ye W, Sposto R, Goldberg J, Mukhi V, Skinner K. The importance of location in determining breast conservation rates. Am J Surg. 2005 Jul; 190(1):18-22. View in: PubMed

Hiotis K, Ye W, Sposto R, Skinner KA. Predictors of breast conservation therapy: size is not all that matters. Cancer. 2005 Mar 1; 103(5):892-9. View in: PubMed

Lones MA, Sanger WG, Le Beau MM, Heerema NA, Sposto R, Perkins SL, Buckley J, Kadin ME, Kjeldsberg CR, Meadows A, Siegel S, Finlay J, Bergeron S, Cairo MS. Chromosome abnormalities may correlate with prognosis in Burkitt/Burkitt-like lymphomas of children and adolescents: a report from Children's Cancer Group Study CCG-E08. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2004 Mar; 26(3):169-78. View in: PubMed

Broniscer A, Nicolaides TP, Dunkel IJ, Gardner SL, Johnson J, Allen JC, Sposto R, Finlay JL. High-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem-cell rescue in the treatment of patients with recurrent non-cerebellar primitive neuroectodermal tumors. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2004 Mar; 42(3):261-7. View in: PubMed

Skinner KA, Helsper JT, Deapen D, Ye W, Sposto R. Breast cancer: do specialists make a difference? Ann Surg Oncol. 2003 Jul; 10(6):606-15. View in: PubMed

Sabesan V, Cairo MS, Lones MA, Perkins SL, Morris E, Sposto R, Van De Ven C, Shiramizu B. Assessment of minimal residual disease in childhood non-hodgkin lymphoma by polymerase chain reaction using patient-specific primers. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2003 Feb; 25(2):109-13. View in: PubMed

Cairo MS, Sposto R, Perkins SL, Meadows AT, Hoover-Regan ML, Anderson JR, Siegel SE, Lones MA, Tedeschi-Blok N, Kadin ME, Kjeldsberg CR, Wilson JF, Sanger W, Morris E, Krailo MD, Finlay JL. Burkitt's and Burkitt-like lymphoma in children and adolescents: a review of the Children's Cancer Group experience. Br J Haematol. 2003 Feb; 120(4):660-70. View in: PubMed

Cairo MS, Sposto R, Hoover-Regan M, Meadows AT, Anderson JR, Siegel SE, Kadin ME, Kjeldsberg CR, Wilson JF, Perkins SL, Lones MA, Morris E, Finlay JL. Childhood and adolescent large-cell lymphoma (LCL): a review of the Children's Cancer Group experience. Am J Hematol. 2003 Jan; 72(1):53-63. View in: PubMed

Woo CS, Silberman H, Nakamura SK, Ye W, Sposto R, Colburn W, Waisman JR, Silverstein MJ. Lymph node status combined with lymphovascular invasion creates a more powerful tool for predicting outcome in patients with invasive breast cancer. Am J Surg. 2002 Oct; 184(4):337-40. View in: PubMed

Nachman JB, Sposto R, Herzog P, Gilchrist GS, Wolden SL, Thomson J, Kadin ME, Pattengale P, Davis PC, Hutchinson RJ, White K. Randomized comparison of low-dose involved-field radiotherapy and no radiotherapy for children with Hodgkin's disease who achieve a complete response to chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol. 2002 Sep 15; 20(18):3765-71. View in: PubMed

Jennings MT, Sposto R, Boyett JM, Vezina LG, Holmes E, Berger MS, Bruggers CS, Bruner JM, Chan KW, Dusenbery KE, Ettinger LJ, Fitz CR, Lafond D, Mandelbaum DE, Massey V, McGuire W, McNeely L, Moulton T, Pollack IF, Shen V. Preradiation chemotherapy in primary high-risk brainstem tumors: phase II study CCG-9941 of the Children's Cancer Group. J Clin Oncol. 2002 Aug 15; 20(16):3431-7. View in: PubMed

Pollack IF, Hamilton RL, Burnham J, Holmes EJ, Finkelstein SD, Sposto R, Yates AJ, Boyett JM, Finlay JL. Impact of proliferation index on outcome in childhood malignant gliomas: results in a multi-institutional cohort. Neurosurgery. 2002 Jun; 50(6):1238-44; discussion 1244-5. View in: PubMed

Lones MA, Perkins SL, Sposto R, Tedeschi N, Kadin ME, Kjeldsberg CR, Wilson JF, Zwick DL, Cairo MS. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma arising in bone in children and adolescents is associated with an excellent outcome: a Children's Cancer Group report. J Clin Oncol. 2002 May 1; 20(9):2293-301. View in: PubMed

Pollack IF, Finkelstein SD, Woods J, Burnham J, Holmes EJ, Hamilton RL, Yates AJ, Boyett JM, Finlay JL, Sposto R. Expression of p53 and prognosis in children with malignant gliomas. N Engl J Med. 2002 Feb 7; 346(6):420-7. View in: PubMed

Sposto R. Cure model analysis in cancer: an application to data from the Children's Cancer Group. Stat Med. 2002 Jan 30; 21(2):293-312. View in: PubMed

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