Faculty

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Ricky Bluthenthal, PhD
Professor of Preventive Medicine
Institute for Health Promotion & Disease Prevention
SSB 302R 2001 N. Soto Street Health Sciences Campus Los Angeles
+1 323 442 8236

Overview

Ricky N. Bluthenthal is a Professor in the Department of Preventive Medicine and the Institute for Prevention Research at the Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California. He received a BA in History and Sociology from the University of California Santa Cruz and a PhD in sociology from the University of California Berkeley. His research has established the effectiveness of syringe exchange programs, tested novel interventions and strategies to reduce HIV risk and improve HIV testing among injection drug users and men who has sex with men, documented how community conditions contribute to health disparities, and examined health policy implementation. His current studies include research on the efficacy of a group-based, culturally congruent intervention to reduce HIV risk among recently incarcerated, bisexual African American men, an exploratory, mixed-method study on people who initiated drug injection in their thirties, an evaluation of substance abuse prevention interventions in Los Angeles County, and a community-based participatory research project to reduce multiple health risk among Latinos. Dr. Bluthenthal has authored over 100 articles in peer-reviewed scientific journals such as the American Journal of Public Health, Social Science and Medicine, The Lancet, Addiction, and Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research among others.

Publications

MacDonald JM, Stokes R, Bluthenthal RN. 2010:33(3):436-458. . The role of community context in business district revitalization strategies: Business improvement districts in Los Angeles. Public Performance and Management Review. 2010; 33(3):436-58. View in: PubMed

Skolnick J, Bluthenthal RN, Correl T. GANGS: The Origins and Impact of Contemporary Youth Gangs in the United States. Gang Organization and Migration. 1993; 193-217. View in: PubMed

Bluthenthal RN, Lorvick J, Kral AH, Erringer EA, Kahn JG. 1999;10:25-38. Collateral damage in the War on Drugs: HIV risk behaviors among injection drug users. The International Journal of Drug Policy. 1999; 10:25-38. View in: PubMed

Anderson RL, Clancey L, Flynn NM, Kral AH, Bluthenthal RN. Delivering syringe exchange services through “Satellite Exchangers”: Sacramento Area Needle Exchange. International Journal of Drug Policy. 2003; 14(5/6):461-3. View in: PubMed

Kral AH, Bluthenthal RN. What is it about needle and syringe exchange programs that make them effective for preventing HIV transmission? . 2003; 14(5/6):361-3. View in: PubMed

Bluthenthal RN, Heinzerling K, Martinez A, Kral, AH. International Journal of Drug Policy. Police crackdowns, societal cost, and the need for alternative approaches. 2005; 16:137-8. View in: PubMed

Bluthenthal RN. Encyclopedia of Substance Abuse Prevention, Treatment, and Recovery. Needle exchange programs. 2008; 629-32. View in: PubMed

Martinez A, D’Amico EJ, Kral AH, Bluthenthal RN. 2012; 42(3):216-225. . Non-medical prescription drug use among injection drug users. Journal Drug Issues. 2012; 42(3):216-225. View in: PubMed

MacDonald J, Stokes RJ, Grunwald B, Bluthenthal RN. The privatization of public safety in urban neighborhoods: Do business improvement districts reduce violent crime among adolescents? . Law and Society Review. 2013; 47(3):621-52. View in: PubMed

Anderson JM, MacDonald J, Bluthenthal RN, Ashwood JS. . Reducing crime by shaping the built environment with zoning: An empirical study of Los Angeles. University of Pennsylvania Law Review. 2013; 161:699-757. View in: PubMed

Wenger LD, Lopez AM, Kral AH, Bluthenthal RN. Moral ambivalence and the decision to initiate others into injection drug use: A qualitative study in two California cities. Int J Drug Policy. 2016 Jul 30; 37:42-51. View in: PubMed

Li MJ, Thing JP, Galvan FH, Gonzalez KD, Bluthenthal RN. Contextualising family microaggressions and strategies of resilience among young gay and bisexual men of Latino heritage. Cult Health Sex. 2016 Jul 18; 1-14. View in: PubMed

Dangerfield DT, Smith LR, Williams J, Unger J, Bluthenthal R. Sexual Positioning Among Men Who Have Sex With Men: A Narrative Review. Arch Sex Behav. 2016 May 13. View in: PubMed

Li MJ, Frank HG, Harawa NT, Williams JK, Chou CP, Bluthenthal RN. Racial Pride and Condom Use in Post-Incarcerated African-American Men Who Have Sex With Men and Women: Test of a Conceptual Model for the Men in Life Environments Intervention. Arch Sex Behav. 2016 Apr 26. View in: PubMed

Schmitz J, Kral AH, Chu D, Wenger LD, Bluthenthal RN. Food insecurity among people who inject drugs in Los Angeles and San Francisco. Public Health Nutr. 2016 Mar 9; 1-9. View in: PubMed

Novak SP, Bluthenthal R, Wenger L, Chu D, Kral AH. Initiation of Heroin and Prescription Opioid Pain Relievers by Birth Cohort. Am J Public Health. 2015 Dec 21; e1-e3. View in: PubMed

Aguirre CG, Bello MS, Andrabi N, Pang RD, Hendricks PS, Bluthenthal RN, Leventhal AM. Gender, Ethnicity, and Their Intersectionality in the Prediction of Smoking Outcome Expectancies in Regular Cigarette Smokers. Behav Modif. 2015 Oct 5. View in: PubMed

Bluthenthal RN, Kral AH. Next steps in research on injection initiation incidence and prevention. Addiction. 2015 Aug; 110(8):1258-9. View in: PubMed

Kral AH, Wenger L, Novak SP, Chu D, Corsi KF, Coffa D, Shapiro B, Bluthenthal RN. Is cannabis use associated with less opioid use among people who inject drugs? Drug Alcohol Depend. 2015 May 22. View in: PubMed

Dyal SR, Kral AH, Dominguez Gonzalez K, Wenger LD, Bluthenthal RN. Consistency of self-reported drug use events in a mixed methods study of people who inject drugs. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2015 May 13; 1-7. View in: PubMed

Bluthenthal RN, Wenger L, Chu D, Lorvick J, Quinn B, Thing JP, Kral AH. Factors associated with being asked to initiate someone into injection drug use. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2015 Feb 19. View in: PubMed

Davidson PJ, Martinez A, Lutnick A, Kral AH, Bluthenthal RN. Drug-related deaths and the sales of needles through pharmacies. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2015 Feb 1; 147:229-34. View in: PubMed

Roth AM, Armenta RA, Wagner KD, Roesch SC, Bluthenthal RN, Cuevas-Mota J, Garfein RS. Patterns of drug use, risky behavior, and health status among persons who inject drugs living in san diego, california: a latent class analysis. Subst Use Misuse. 2015 Jan 28; 50(2):205-14. View in: PubMed

Bluthenthal RN, Wenger L, Chu D, Quinn B, Thing J, Kral AH. Factors associated with initiating someone into illicit drug injection. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2014 Nov 1; 144:186-92. View in: PubMed

Quinn B, Chu D, Wenger L, Bluthenthal RN, Kral AH. Syringe disposal among people who inject drugs in Los Angeles: The role of sterile syringe source. Int J Drug Policy. 2014 Sep; 25(5):905-10. View in: PubMed

Arreola S, Bluthenthal RN, Wenger L, Chu D, Thing J, Kral AH. Characteristics of people who initiate injection drug use later in life. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2014 May 1; 138:244-50. View in: PubMed

Wagner KD, Simon-Freeman R, Bluthenthal RN. The association between law enforcement encounters and syringe sharing among IDUs on skid row: a mixed methods analysis. AIDS Behav. 2013 Oct; 17(8):2637-43. View in: PubMed

Fink DS, Lindsay SP, Slymen DJ, Kral AH, Bluthenthal RN. Abscess and self-treatment among injection drug users at four California syringe exchanges and their surrounding communities. Subst Use Misuse. 2013 May; 48(7):523-31. View in: PubMed

Lutnick A, Cooper E, Dodson C, Bluthenthal R, Kral AH. Pharmacy syringe purchase test of nonprescription syringe sales in San Francisco and Los Angeles in 2010. J Urban Health. 2013 Apr; 90(2):276-83. View in: PubMed

Anderson JM, MacDonald J, Bluthenthal RN, Ashwood JS. . Reducing crime by shaping the built environment with zoning: An empirical study of Los Angeles. University of Pennsylvania Law Review. 2013; 161:699-757. View in: PubMed

MacDonald J, Stokes RJ, Grunwald B, Bluthenthal RN. The privatization of public safety in urban neighborhoods: Do business improvement districts reduce violent crime among adolescents? . Law and Society Review. 2013; 47(3):621-52. View in: PubMed

Bluthenthal RN, Palar K, Mendel P, Kanouse DE, Corbin DE, Derose KP. Attitudes and beliefs related to HIV/AIDS in urban religious congregations: Barriers and opportunities for HIV-related interventions. Soc Sci Med. 2012 May; 74(10):1520-7. View in: PubMed

Martinez A, D’Amico EJ, Kral AH, Bluthenthal RN. 2012; 42(3):216-225. . Non-medical prescription drug use among injection drug users. Journal Drug Issues. 2012; 42(3):216-225. View in: PubMed

Martinez AN, Bluthenthal RN, Neilands T, Kral AH. Assessing geographic and individual level factors associated with arrests among injection drug users in California. Health Place. 2011 Nov; 17(6):1258-65. View in: PubMed

Bluthenthal RN, Fehringer JA. Commentary for Li et al. , "Sexual transmissibility of HIV among opiates users with concurrent sexual partnerships: An egocentric network study in Yunnan, China. " Addiction. 2011 Oct; 106(10). View in: PubMed

Sussman S, Leventhal A, Bluthenthal RN, Freimuth M, Forster M, Ames SL. A framework for the specificity of addictions. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2011 Aug; 8(8):3399-415. View in: PubMed

Derose KP, Mendel PJ, Palar K, Kanouse DE, Bluthenthal RN, Castaneda LW, Corbin DE, Domínguez BX, Hawes-Dawson J, Mata MA, Oden CW. Religious congregations' involvement in HIV: a case study approach. AIDS Behav. 2011 Aug; 15(6):1220-32. View in: PubMed

Martinez AN, Bluthenthal RN, Flynn NM, Anderson RL, Kral AH. HIV risks and seroprevalence among Mexican American injection drug users in California. AIDS Behav. 2011 Jan; 15(1):95-102. View in: PubMed

Kral AH, Lorvick J, Martinez A, Lewis MA, Orr WA, Anderson R, Flynn N, Bluthenthal RN. HIV prevalence and risk among heterosexual methamphetamine injectors in California. Subst Use Misuse. 2011; 46(9):1081-9. View in: PubMed

MacDonald J, Golinelli D, Stokes RJ, Bluthenthal R. The effect of business improvement districts on the incidence of violent crimes. Inj Prev. 2010 Oct; 16(5):327-32. View in: PubMed

Green TC, Bluthenthal RN, Singer M, Beletsky L, Grau LE, Marshall P, Heimer R. Prevalence and predictors of transitions to and away from syringe exchange use over time in 3 US cities with varied syringe dispensing policies. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2010 Sep 1; 111(1-2):74-81. View in: PubMed

Wagner KD, Unger JB, Bluthenthal RN, Andreeva VA, Pentz MA. Cognitive behavioral theories used to explain injection risk behavior among injection drug users: a review and suggestions for the integration of cognitive and environmental models. Health Educ Behav. 2010 Aug; 37(4):504-32. View in: PubMed

Riley ED, Kral AH, Stopka TJ, Garfein RS, Reuckhaus P, Bluthenthal RN. Access to sterile syringes through San Francisco pharmacies and the association with HIV risk behavior among injection drug users. J Urban Health. 2010 Jul; 87(4):534-42. View in: PubMed

Cooper EN, Dodson C, Stopka TJ, Riley ED, Garfein RS, Bluthenthal RN. Pharmacy participation in non-prescription syringe sales in Los Angeles and San Francisco counties, 2007. J Urban Health. 2010 Jul; 87(4):543-52. View in: PubMed

Derose KP, Mendel PJ, Kanouse DE, Bluthenthal RN, Castaneda LW, Hawes-Dawson J, Mata M, Oden CW. Learning about urban congregations and HIV/AIDS: community-based foundations for developing congregational health interventions. J Urban Health. 2010 Jul; 87(4):617-30. View in: PubMed

Garfein RS, Stopka TJ, Pavlinac PB, Ross A, Haye BK, Riley ED, Bluthenthal RN. Three years after legalization of nonprescription pharmacy syringe sales in California: where are we now? J Urban Health. 2010 Jul; 87(4):576-85. View in: PubMed

Bluthenthal R, Kral A. Commentary on Palmateer et al. (2010): next steps in the global research agenda on syringe access for injection drug users. Addiction. 2010 May; 105(5):860-1. View in: PubMed

MacDonald JM, Stokes R, Bluthenthal RN. 2010:33(3):436-458. . The role of community context in business district revitalization strategies: Business improvement districts in Los Angeles. Public Performance and Management Review. 2010; 33(3):436-58. View in: PubMed

Cohen DA, Sturm R, Scott M, Farley TA, Bluthenthal R. Not enough fruit and vegetables or too many cookies, candies, salty snacks, and soft drinks? Public Health Rep. 2010 Jan-Feb; 125(1):88-95. View in: PubMed

Farley TA, Rice J, Bodor JN, Cohen DA, Bluthenthal RN, Rose D. Measuring the food environment: shelf space of fruits, vegetables, and snack foods in stores. J Urban Health. 2009 Sep; 86(5):672-82. View in: PubMed

Theall KP, Scribner R, Cohen D, Bluthenthal RN, Schonlau M, Lynch S, Farley TA. The neighborhood alcohol environment and alcohol-related morbidity. Alcohol Alcohol. 2009 Sep-Oct; 44(5):491-9. View in: PubMed

Robinson PL, Boscardin WJ, George SM, Teklehaimanot S, Heslin KC, Bluthenthal RN. The effect of urban street gang densities on small area homicide incidence in a large metropolitan county, 1994-2002. J Urban Health. 2009 Jul; 86(4):511-23. View in: PubMed

Vilamovska AM, Brown Taylor D, Bluthenthal RN. Adverse drinking-related consequences among lower income, racial, and ethnic minority drinkers: cross-sectional results. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2009 Apr; 33(4):645-53. View in: PubMed

Theall KP, Scribner R, Cohen D, Bluthenthal RN, Schonlau M, Farley TA. Social capital and the neighborhood alcohol environment. Health Place. 2009 Mar; 15(1):323-32. View in: PubMed

Grau LE, Green TC, Singer M, Bluthenthal RN, Marshall PA, Heimer R. Getting the message straight: effects of a brief hepatitis prevention intervention among injection drug users. Harm Reduct J. 2009; 6:36. View in: PubMed

Schonlau M, Scribner R, Farley TA, Theall K, Bluthenthal RN, Scott M, Cohen DA. Alcohol outlet density and alcohol consumption in Los Angeles county and southern Louisiana. Geospat Health. 2008 Nov; 3(1):91-101. View in: PubMed

Scott MM, Cohen DA, Schonlau M, Farley TA, Bluthenthal RN. Alcohol and tobacco marketing: evaluating compliance with outdoor advertising guidelines. Am J Prev Med. 2008 Sep; 35(3):203-9. View in: PubMed

Sharma M, Burrows D, Bluthenthal RN. Improving coverage and scale-up of HIV prevention, treatment and care for injecting drug users: moving the agenda forward. Int J Drug Policy. 2008 Apr; 19 Suppl 1:S1-4. View in: PubMed

Bluthenthal RN, Cohen DA, Farley TA, Scribner R, Beighley C, Schonlau M, Robinson PL. Alcohol availability and neighborhood characteristics in Los Angeles, California and southern Louisiana. J Urban Health. 2008 Mar; 85(2):191-205. View in: PubMed

Bluthenthal RN, Heinzerling KG, Anderson R, Flynn NM, Kral AH. Approval of syringe exchange programs in California: results from a local approach to HIV prevention. Am J Public Health. 2008 Feb; 98(2):278-83. View in: PubMed

Bluthenthal RN. Encyclopedia of Substance Abuse Prevention, Treatment, and Recovery. Needle exchange programs. 2008; 629-32. View in: PubMed

Cohen DA, Schoeff D, Farley TA, Bluthenthal R, Scribner R, Overton A. Reliability of a store observation tool in measuring availability of alcohol and selected foods. J Urban Health. 2007 Nov; 84(6):807-13. View in: PubMed

Bluthenthal RN, Jacobson JO, Robinson PL. Are racial disparities in alcohol treatment completion associated with racial differences in treatment modality entry? Comparison of outpatient treatment and residential treatment in Los Angeles County, 1998 to 2000. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2007 Nov; 31(11):1920-6. View in: PubMed

Bluthenthal RN, Do DP, Finch B, Martinez A, Edlin BR, Kral AH. Community characteristics associated with HIV risk among injection drug users in the San Francisco Bay Area: a multilevel analysis. J Urban Health. 2007 Sep; 84(5):653-66. View in: PubMed

Bluthenthal RN, Anderson R, Flynn NM, Kral AH. Higher syringe coverage is associated with lower odds of HIV risk and does not increase unsafe syringe disposal among syringe exchange program clients. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2007 Jul 10; 89(2-3):214-22. View in: PubMed

Heinzerling KG, Kral AH, Flynn NM, Anderson RL, Scott A, Gilbert ML, Asch SM, Bluthenthal RN. Human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus testing services at syringe exchange programs: availability and outcomes. J Subst Abuse Treat. 2007 Jun; 32(4):423-9. View in: PubMed

Martinez AN, Bluthenthal RN, Lorvick J, Anderson R, Flynn N, Kral AH. The impact of legalizing syringe exchange programs on arrests among injection drug users in California. J Urban Health. 2007 May; 84(3):423-35. View in: PubMed

Jacobson JO, Robinson PL, Bluthenthal RN. Racial disparities in completion rates from publicly funded alcohol treatment: economic resources explain more than demographics and addiction severity. Health Serv Res. 2007 Apr; 42(2):773-94. View in: PubMed

Bluthenthal RN, Ridgeway G, Schell T, Anderson R, Flynn NM, Kral AH. Examination of the association between syringe exchange program (SEP) dispensation policy and SEP client-level syringe coverage among injection drug users. Addiction. 2007 Apr; 102(4):638-46. View in: PubMed

Sharma M, Burrows D, Bluthenthal R. Coverage of HIV prevention programmes for injection drug users: confusions, aspirations, definitions and ways forward. Int J Drug Policy. 2007 Mar; 18(2):92-8. View in: PubMed

Stopka TJ, Marshall C, Bluthenthal RN, Webb DS, Truax SR. HCV and HIV counseling and testing integration in California: an innovative approach to increase HIV counseling and testing rates. Public Health Rep. 2007; 122 Suppl 2:68-73. View in: PubMed

Jacobson JO, Robinson P, Bluthenthal RN. A multilevel decomposition approach to estimate the role of program location and neighborhood disadvantage in racial disparities in alcohol treatment completion. Soc Sci Med. 2007 Jan; 64(2):462-76. View in: PubMed

Bluthenthal RN, Riehman K, Jaycox LH, Morral A. Perspectives on therapeutic treatment from adolescent probationers. J Psychoactive Drugs. 2006 Dec; 38(4):461-71. View in: PubMed

Galvan FH, Bluthenthal RN, Ani C, Bing EG. Increasing HIV testing among latinos by bundling HIV testing with other tests. J Urban Health. 2006 Sep; 83(5):849-59. View in: PubMed

Cohen DA, Ghosh-Dastidar B, Scribner R, Miu A, Scott M, Robinson P, Farley TA, Bluthenthal RN, Brown-Taylor D. Alcohol outlets, gonorrhea, and the Los Angeles civil unrest: a longitudinal analysis. Soc Sci Med. 2006 Jun; 62(12):3062-71. View in: PubMed

French MT, Browntaylor D, Bluthenthal RN. Price elasticity of demand for malt liquor beer: findings from a US pilot study. Soc Sci Med. 2006 May; 62(9):2101-11. View in: PubMed

Heinzerling KG, Etzioni DA, Hurley B, Holtom P, Bluthenthal RN, Asch SM. Hospital utilization for injection drug use-related soft tissue infections in urban versus rural counties in California. J Urban Health. 2006 Mar; 83(2):176-81. View in: PubMed

Heinzerling KG, Kral AH, Flynn NM, Anderson RL, Scott A, Gilbert ML, Asch SM, Bluthenthal RN. Unmet need for recommended preventive health services among clients of California syringe exchange programs: implications for quality improvement. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2006 Feb 1; 81(2):167-78. View in: PubMed

Wells KB, Staunton A, Norris KC, Bluthenthal R, Chung B, Gelberg L, Jones L, Kataoka S, Koegel P, Miranda J, Mangione CM, Patel K, Rodriguez M, Shapiro M, Wong M. Building an academic-community partnered network for clinical services research: the Community Health Improvement Collaborative (CHIC). Ethn Dis. 2006; 16(1 Suppl 1):S3-17. View in: PubMed

Punzalan C, Paxton KC, Guentzel H, Bluthenthal RN, Staunton AD, Mejia G, Morales L, Miranda J. Seeking community input to improve implementation of a lifestyle modification program. Ethn Dis. 2006; 16(1 Suppl 1):S79-88. View in: PubMed

Lorvick J, Bluthenthal RN, Scott A, Gilbert ML, Riehman KS, Anderson RL, Flynn NM, Kral AH. Secondary syringe exchange among users of 23 California syringe exchange programs. Subst Use Misuse. 2006; 41(6-7):865-82. View in: PubMed

Bluthenthal RN, Jones L, Fackler-Lowrie N, Ellison M, Booker T, Jones F, McDaniel S, Moini M, Williams KR, Klap R, Koegel P, Wells KB. Witness for Wellness: preliminary findings from a community-academic participatory research mental health initiative. Ethn Dis. 2006; 16(1 Suppl 1):S18-34. View in: PubMed

Bogart LM, Kral AH, Scott A, Anderson R, Flynn N, Gilbert ML, Bluthenthal RN. Condom attitudes and behaviors among injection drug users participating in California syringe exchange programs. AIDS Behav. 2005 Dec; 9(4):423-32. View in: PubMed

Grau LE, Bluthenthal RN, Marshall P, Singer M, Heimer R. Psychosocial and behavioral differences among drug injectors who use and do not use syringe exchange programs. AIDS Behav. 2005 Dec; 9(4):495-504. View in: PubMed

Cohen DA, Kanouse DE, Iguchi MY, Bluthenthal RN, Galvan FH, Bing EG. Screening for sexually transmitted diseases in non-traditional settings: a personal view. Int J STD AIDS. 2005 Aug; 16(8):521-7. View in: PubMed

Kanouse DE, Bluthenthal RN, Bogart L, Iguchi MY, Perry S, Sand K, Shoptaw S. Recruiting drug-using men who have sex with men into behavioral interventions: a two-stage approach. J Urban Health. 2005 Mar; 82(1 Suppl 1):i109-19. View in: PubMed

Bluthenthal RN, Browntaylor D, Guzmán-Becerra N, Robinson PL. Characteristics of malt liquor beer drinkers in a low-income, racial minority community sample. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2005 Mar; 29(3):402-9. View in: PubMed

Bogart LM, Kral AH, Scott A, Anderson R, Flynn N, Gilbert ML, Bluthenthal RN. Sexual risk among injection drug users recruited from syringe exchange programs in California. Sex Transm Dis. 2005 Jan; 32(1):27-34. View in: PubMed

Bluthenthal RN, Heinzerling K, Martinez A, Kral, AH. International Journal of Drug Policy. Police crackdowns, societal cost, and the need for alternative approaches. 2005; 16:137-8. View in: PubMed

Kral AH, Anderson R, Flynn NM, Bluthenthal RN. Injection risk behaviors among clients of syringe exchange programs with different syringe dispensation policies. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2004 Oct 1; 37(2):1307-12. View in: PubMed

Bluthenthal RN, Malik MR, Grau LE, Singer M, Marshall P, Heimer R. Sterile syringe access conditions and variations in HIV risk among drug injectors in three cities. Addiction. 2004 Sep; 99(9):1136-46. View in: PubMed

Riehman KS, Kral AH, Anderson R, Flynn N, Bluthenthal RN. Sexual relationships, secondary syringe exchange, and gender differences in HIV risk among drug injectors. J Urban Health. 2004 Jun; 81(2):249-59. View in: PubMed

Anderson RL, Clancey L, Flynn NM, Kral AH, Bluthenthal RN. Delivering syringe exchange services through “Satellite Exchangers”: Sacramento Area Needle Exchange. International Journal of Drug Policy. 2003; 14(5/6):461-3. View in: PubMed

Kral AH, Bluthenthal RN. What is it about needle and syringe exchange programs that make them effective for preventing HIV transmission? . 2003; 14(5/6):361-3. View in: PubMed

Heimer R, Clair S, Grau LE, Bluthenthal RN, Marshall PA, Singer M. Hepatitis-associated knowledge is low and risks are high among HIV-aware injection drug users in three US cities. Addiction. 2002 Oct; 97(10):1277-87. View in: PubMed

Bluthenthal RN, Kral AH, Gee L, Lorvick J, Moore L, Seal K, Edlin BR. Trends in HIV seroprevalence and risk among gay and bisexual men who inject drugs in San Francisco, 1988 to 2000. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2001 Nov 1; 28(3):264-9. View in: PubMed

Seal KH, Kral AH, Gee L, Moore LD, Bluthenthal RN, Lorvick J, Edlin BR. Predictors and prevention of nonfatal overdose among street-recruited injection heroin users in the San Francisco Bay Area, 1998-1999. Am J Public Health. 2001 Nov; 91(11):1842-6. View in: PubMed

Kral AH, Bluthenthal RN, Lorvick J, Gee L, Bacchetti P, Edlin BR. Sexual transmission of HIV-1 among injection drug users in San Francisco, USA: risk-factor analysis. Lancet. 2001 May 5; 357(9266):1397-401. View in: PubMed

Bluthenthal RN, Gogineni A, Longshore D, Stein M. Factors associated with readiness to change drug use among needle-exchange users. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2001 May 1; 62(3):225-30. View in: PubMed

Longshore D, Bluthenthal RN, Stein MD. Needle exchange program attendance and injection risk in Providence, Rhode Island. AIDS Educ Prev. 2001 Feb; 13(1):78-90. View in: PubMed

Galvan FH, Bing EG, Bluthenthal RN. Accessing HIV testing and care. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2000 Dec 15; 25 Suppl 2:S151-6. View in: PubMed

Moss NE, Lemp G, Bluthenthal R, Goldsmith MA, Haubrich R, Kahn JO. From the cell to the community: AIDS research in California. The University of California Universitywide AIDS Research Program annual meeting, February 2000. West J Med. 2000 Aug; 173(2):119-24. View in: PubMed

Bluthenthal RN, Kral AH, Gee L, Erringer EA, Edlin BR. The effect of syringe exchange use on high-risk injection drug users: a cohort study. AIDS. 2000 Mar 31; 14(5):605-11. View in: PubMed

Binswanger IA, Kral AH, Bluthenthal RN, Rybold DJ, Edlin BR. High prevalence of abscesses and cellulitis among community-recruited injection drug users in San Francisco. Clin Infect Dis. 2000 Mar; 30(3):579-81. View in: PubMed

Kral AH, Bluthenthal RN, Erringer EA, Lorvick J, Edlin BR. Risk factors among IDUs who give injections to or receive injections from other drug users. Addiction. 1999 May; 94(5):675-83. View in: PubMed

Bluthenthal RN, Lorvick J, Kral AH, Erringer EA, Kahn JG. 1999;10:25-38. Collateral damage in the War on Drugs: HIV risk behaviors among injection drug users. The International Journal of Drug Policy. 1999; 10:25-38. View in: PubMed

Needle RH, Coyle S, Cesari H, Trotter R, Clatts M, Koester S, Price L, McLellan E, Finlinson A, Bluthenthal RN, Pierce T, Johnson J, Jones TS, Williams M. HIV risk behaviors associated with the injection process: multiperson use of drug injection equipment and paraphernalia in injection drug user networks. Subst Use Misuse. 1998 Oct; 33(12):2403-23. View in: PubMed

Bluthenthal RN, Kral AH, Erringer EA, Edlin BR. Use of an illegal syringe exchange and injection-related risk behaviors among street-recruited injection drug users in Oakland, California, 1992 to 1995. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 1998 Aug 15; 18(5):505-11. View in: PubMed

Bluthenthal RN, Kral AH, Lorvick J, Erringer EA, Edlin BR. Harm reduction and needle exchange programmes. Lancet. 1998 Jun 13; 351(9118):1819-20. View in: PubMed

Bluthenthal RN. Syringe exchange as a social movement: a case study of harm reduction in Oakland, California. Subst Use Misuse. 1998 Apr; 33(5):1147-71. View in: PubMed

Kral AH, Bluthenthal RN, Booth RE, Watters JK. HIV seroprevalence among street-recruited injection drug and crack cocaine users in 16 US municipalities. Am J Public Health. 1998 Jan; 88(1):108-13. View in: PubMed

Bluthenthal RN, Kral AH, Lorvick J, Watters JK. Impact of law enforcement on syringe exchange programs: a look at Oakland and San Francisco. Med Anthropol. 1997 Dec; 18(1):61-83. View in: PubMed

Kral AH, Lorvick J, Bluthenthal RN, Watters JK. HIV risk profile of drug-using women who have sex with women in 19 United States cities. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 1997 Nov 1; 16(3):211-7. View in: PubMed

Heimer R, Bluthenthal RN, Singer M, Khoshnood K. Structural impediments to operational syringe-exchange programs. AIDS Public Policy J. 1996; 11(4):169-84. View in: PubMed

Watters JK, Bluthenthal RN, Kral AH. HIV seroprevalence in injection drug users. JAMA. 1995 Apr 19; 273(15):1178. View in: PubMed

Bluthenthal RN, Watters JK. Multimethod research from targeted sampling to HIV risk environments. NIDA Res Monogr. 1995; 157:212-30. View in: PubMed

Skolnick J, Bluthenthal RN, Correl T. GANGS: The Origins and Impact of Contemporary Youth Gangs in the United States. Gang Organization and Migration. 1993; 193-217. View in: PubMed

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