Faculty

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Sofia Gruskin, JD, MIA
Professor of Preventive Medicine
Preventive Medicine
SSB 318J 2001 N. Soto Street Health Sciences Campus Los Angeles
+1 323 442 7235

Overview

Professor Gruskin’s work has been instrumental in the conceptual, methodological, policy and practice development of linking health and human rights, with a focus on HIV/AIDS, sexual and reproductive health, child and adolescent health, gender-based violence and health systems. She has extensive experience in research, training and programmatic work with nongovernmental, governmental and intergovernmental organizations working in the fields of health and human rights around the world. In addition to her appointments in the Keck School of Medicine and Gould School of Law, she is the Director of the Program on Global Health and Human Rights located in the USC Institute for Global Health.

Professor Gruskin serves on numerous boards and committees nationally and internationally. She is a member of the Institute of Medicine's Committee for the Outcome and Impact Evaluation of Global HIV/AIDS Programs Implemented under the Lantos/Hyde Act of 2008 (PEPFAR), the Technical Advisory Group of the Global Commission on HIV and the Law, and the UNAIDS Monitoring and Evaluation Reference Group. Professor Gruskin is the principal investigator for several UNAIDS, WHO and UNFPA sponsored projects intended to strengthen the health and human rights research and policy agenda – particularly in the areas of HIV/AIDS, sexual and reproductive health, child and adolescent health and gender-based violence. Other partnerships include the Merck Company Foundation, Open Society Institute, and universities and local organizations in Brazil, Kenya and Vietnam. Professor Gruskin is also Adjunct Professor of Global Health in the Department of Global Health and Population at the Harvard School of Pubic Health and serves as an associate editor for The American Journal of Public Health, Global Public Health, and Reproductive Health Matters.

Background
Professor Gruskin was previously at the Harvard School of Public Health’s Department of Global Health and Population, where she was an Associate Professor, Director of the Program on International Health and Human Rights, Co-Director of the Interdepartmental Program on Women, Gender and Health, and Chair of the Group on Reproductive Health and Rights based at the Harvard Center for Population and Development Studies. She was a permanent member of the NIH Behavioral and Social Consequences of HIV/AIDS study section (2005-2009), and Chair of the UNAIDS Global Reference Group on HIV/AIDS and Human Rights (2002-2006). Professor Gruskin was editor-in-chief of the international journal Health and Human Rights from 1994-2006.

Publications

Krieger N, Gruskin S, Singh N, Kiang MV, Chen JT, Waterman PD, Beckfield J, Coull BA. Reproductive justice & preventable deaths: state funding, family planning, abortion, and infant mortality, US 1980-2010. SSM Popul Health. 2016 Dec; 2:277-293. View in: PubMed

Capron AM, Gruskin S. No "Shared Governance" Without Attention to Law, Broadly Conceived. Am J Bioeth. 2016 Oct; 16(10):54-6. View in: PubMed

Fleming PJ, Gruskin S, Rojo F, Dworkin SL. Men's violence against women and men are inter-related: Recommendations for simultaneous intervention. Soc Sci Med. 2015 Dec; 146:249-56. View in: PubMed

Miller AM, Gruskin S, Cottingham J, Kismödi E. Sound and Fury - engaging with the politics and the law of sexual rights. Reprod Health Matters. 2015 Nov; 23(46):7-15. View in: PubMed

Miller AM, Kismödi E, Cottingham J, Gruskin S. Sexual rights as human rights: a guide to authoritative sources and principles for applying human rights to sexuality and sexual health. Reprod Health Matters. 2015 Nov; 23(46):16-30. View in: PubMed

Dourado I, MacCarthy S, Reddy M, Calazans G, Gruskin S. Revisiting the use of condoms in Brazil. Rev Bras Epidemiol. 2015 Sep; 18 Suppl 1:63-88. View in: PubMed

Tarantola D, Camargo K, Gruskin S. Searching for Justice and Health. Am J Public Health. 2015 Aug; 105(8):1511-2. View in: PubMed

Reidpath DD, Gruskin S, Allotey P. Is the right to health compatible with sustainability? J Glob Health. 2015 Jun; 5(1):010301. View in: PubMed

Krieger N, Gruskin S, Singh N, Kiang MV, Chen JT, Waterman PD, Gottlieb J, Beckfield J, Coull BA. Reproductive Justice and the Pace of Change: Socioeconomic Trends in US Infant Death Rates by Legal Status of Abortion, 1960-1980. Am J Public Health. 2015 Apr; 105(4):680-2. View in: PubMed

Kismödi E, Cottingham J, Gruskin S, Miller AM. Advancing sexual health through human rights: The role of the law. Glob Public Health. 2015 Feb; 10(2):252-67. View in: PubMed

Samet JM, Gruskin S. Air pollution, health, and human rights. Lancet Respir Med. 2015 Feb; 3(2):98-100. View in: PubMed

Kumar S, Gruskin S, Khosla R, Narasimhan M. Human rights and the sexual and reproductive health of women living with HIV - a literature review. J Int AIDS Soc. 2015; 18(6 Suppl 5):20290. View in: PubMed

Lazarus JV, Balabanova D, Safreed-Harmon K, Daniels K, Mabaso KM, McKee M, Mirzoev T, Hyder AA, Gruskin S. Roundtable discussion on the Third Global Symposium on Health Systems Research: why prioritise talk over aid in the midst of the Ebola crisis? BMC Health Serv Res. 2015; 15(1):192. View in: PubMed

MacCarthy S, Hoffmann M, Ferguson L, Nunn A, Irvin R, Bangsberg D, Gruskin S, Dourado I. The HIV care cascade: models, measures and moving forward. J Int AIDS Soc. 2015; 18(1):19395. View in: PubMed

Dourado I, MacCarthy S, Lima C, Veras MA, Kerr L, de Brito AM, Gruskin S. What's pregnancy got to do with it? Late presentation to HIV/AIDS services in Northeastern Brazil. AIDS Care. 2014 Dec; 26(12):1514-20. View in: PubMed

Gruskin S, Safreed-Harmon K, Moore CL, Steiner RJ, Dworkin SL. HIV and gender-based violence: welcome policies and programmes, but is the research keeping up? Reprod Health Matters. 2014 Nov; 22(44):174-84. View in: PubMed

MacCarthy S, Rasanathan JJ, Dourado I, Gruskin S. Quality, not just quantity: Lessons learned from HIV testing in Salvador, Brazil. Glob Public Health. 2014 Jul; 9(6):723-39. View in: PubMed

Samet JM, Wipfli HL, Gruskin S. Banning the Hiring of Tobacco Users: Where's the Fire? Acad Med. 2014 Jun; 89(6):837-9. View in: PubMed

Gruskin S, Ferguson L, Tarantola D, Beaglehole R. Noncommunicable diseases and human rights: a promising synergy. Am J Public Health. 2014 May; 104(5):773-5. View in: PubMed

Maccarthy S, Rasanathan JJ, Crawford-Roberts A, Dourado I, Gruskin S. Contemplating abortion: HIV-positive women's decision to terminate pregnancy. Cult Health Sex. 2014 Feb; 16(2):190-201. View in: PubMed

Gruskin S, Ravindran TK. Realising the ICPD 20 years later: shifting the paradigms for research and education. Glob Public Health. 2014; 9(6):647-52. View in: PubMed

Gruskin S, Pierce GW, Ferguson L. Realigning government action with public health evidence: the legal and policy environment affecting sex work and HIV in Asia. Cult Health Sex. 2014 Jan; 16(1):14-29. View in: PubMed

Gruskin S, Ferguson L, Alfven T, Rugg D, Peersman G. Identifying structural barriers to an effective HIV response: using the National Composite Policy Index data to evaluate the human rights, legal and policy environment. J Int AIDS Soc. 2013; 16:18000. View in: PubMed

Gruskin S, Safreed-Harmon K, Ezer T, Gathumbi A, Cohen J, Kameri-Mbote P. Access to justice: evaluating law, health and human rights programmes in Kenya. J Int AIDS Soc. 2013; 16(3 Suppl 2):18726. View in: PubMed

Gruskin S. Safeguarding abortion: a matter of reproductive rights. Am J Public Health. 2013 Jan; 103(1):4. View in: PubMed

Gruskin S. Pregnancy decisions of women living with HIV: the need for multidisciplinary perspectives. Reprod Health Matters. 2012 Dec; 20(39 Suppl):1-4. View in: PubMed

MacCarthy S, Rasanathan JJ, Ferguson L, Gruskin S. The pregnancy decisions of HIV-positive women: the state of knowledge and way forward. Reprod Health Matters. 2012 Dec; 20(39 Suppl):119-40. View in: PubMed

Gruskin S, Ahmed S, Bogecho D, Ferguson L, Hanefeld J, Maccarthy S, Raad Z, Steiner R. Human rights in health systems frameworks: what is there, what is missing and why does it matter? Glob Public Health. 2012; 7(4):337-51. View in: PubMed

Nunn A, Dickman S, Nattrass N, Cornwall A, Gruskin S. The impacts of AIDS movements on the policy responses to HIV/AIDS in Brazil and South Africa: a comparative analysis. Glob Public Health. 2012; 7(10):1031-44. View in: PubMed

Allotey PA, Diniz S, Dejong J, Delvaux T, Gruskin S, Fonn S. Sexual and reproductive health and rights in public health education. Reprod Health Matters. 2011 Nov; 19(38):56-68. View in: PubMed

Gruskin S. Tackling violence and HIV/AIDS: global health imperatives. Am J Public Health. 2011 Jun; 101(6):968. View in: PubMed

Dickens BM, Gruskin S, Tarantola D. Avoiding plagiarism: the assurance of original publication. Am J Public Health. 2011 Jun; 101(6):969. View in: PubMed

Gruskin S, Raad Z. Are drug companies living up to their human rights responsibilities? Moving toward assessment. PLoS Med. 2010 Sep; 7(9):e1000310. View in: PubMed

Krieger N, Alegría M, Almeida-Filho N, Barbosa da Silva J, Barreto ML, Beckfield J, Berkman L, Birn AE, Duncan BB, Franco S, Garcia DA, Gruskin S, James SA, Laurell AC, Schmidt MI, Walters KL. Who, and what, causes health inequities? Reflections on emerging debates from an exploratory Latin American/North American workshop. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2010 Sep; 64(9):747-9. View in: PubMed

Ouyang H, Gruskin S. Human rights and humanitarian assistance: helping health professionals lead the way in Haiti and beyond. Med Confl Surviv. 2010 Jul-Sep; 26(3):195-8. View in: PubMed

Cottingham J, Kismodi E, Hilber AM, Lincetto O, Stahlhofer M, Gruskin S. Using human rights for sexual and reproductive health: improving legal and regulatory frameworks. Bull World Health Organ. 2010 Jul 1; 88(7):551-5. View in: PubMed

Gruskin S, Bogecho D, Ferguson L. 'Rights-based approaches' to health policies and programs: articulations, ambiguities, and assessment. J Public Health Policy. 2010 Jul; 31(2):129-45. View in: PubMed

Landers S, Gruskin S. Gender, sex, and sexuality--same, different, or equal? Am J Public Health. 2010 Mar; 100(3):397. View in: PubMed

Peersman G, Ferguson L, Torres MA, Smith S, Gruskin S. Increasing civil society participation in the national HIV response: the role of UNGASS reporting. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2009 Dec; 52 Suppl 2:S97-103. View in: PubMed

Gruskin S, Ferguson L, Peersman G, Rugg D. Human rights in the global response to HIV: findings from the 2008 United Nations General Assembly Special Session Reports. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2009 Dec; 52 Suppl 2:S104-10. View in: PubMed

Gruskin S, Ferguson L. Government regulation of sex and sexuality: in their own words. Reprod Health Matters. 2009 Nov; 17(34):108-18. View in: PubMed

Gruskin S, Ferguson L. Using indicators to determine the contribution of human rights to public health efforts. Bull World Health Organ. 2009 Sep; 87(9):714-9. View in: PubMed

Ouyang H, Vanrooyen M, Gruskin S. The sphere project: next steps in moving toward a rights-based approach to humanitarian assistance. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2009 May-Jun; 24(3):147-52. View in: PubMed

Chigwedere P, Seage GR, Gruskin S, Lee TH, Essex M. Estimating the lost benefits of antiretroviral drug use in South Africa. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2008 Dec 1; 49(4):410-5. View in: PubMed

Gruskin S. Reproductive and sexual rights: do words matter? Am J Public Health. 2008 Oct; 98(10):1737. View in: PubMed

Gruskin S, Firestone R, Maccarthy S, Ferguson L. HIV and pregnancy intentions: do services adequately respond to women's needs? Am J Public Health. 2008 Oct; 98(10):1746-50. View in: PubMed

Gruskin S, Daniels N. Process is the point: justice and human rights: priority setting and fair deliberative process. Am J Public Health. 2008 Sep; 98(9):1573-7. View in: PubMed

Gruskin S, Tarantola D. Universal Access to HIV prevention, treatment and care: assessing the inclusion of human rights in international and national strategic plans. AIDS. 2008 Aug; 22 Suppl 2:S123-32. View in: PubMed

Tarantola D, Gruskin S. Pragmatic pathways to universal access: leadership, equity, accountability and partnerships in HIV prevention and care. AIDS. 2008 Aug; 22 Suppl 2:S1-2. View in: PubMed

Gruskin S, Cottingham J, Hilber AM, Kismodi E, Lincetto O, Roseman MJ. Using human rights to improve maternal and neonatal health: history, connections and a proposed practical approach. Bull World Health Organ. 2008 Aug; 86(8):589-93. View in: PubMed

Gruskin S, Ahmed S, Ferguson L. Provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling in health facilities--what does this mean for the health and human rights of pregnant women? Dev World Bioeth. 2008 Apr; 8(1):23-32. View in: PubMed

Nunn AS, Fonseca EM, Bastos FI, Gruskin S, Salomon JA. Evolution of antiretroviral drug costs in Brazil in the context of free and universal access to AIDS treatment. PLoS Med. 2007 Nov 13; 4(11):e305. View in: PubMed

Gruskin S, Ferguson L, Bogecho DO. Beyond the numbers: using rights-based perspectives to enhance antiretroviral treatment scale-up. AIDS. 2007 Oct; 21 Suppl 5:S13-9. View in: PubMed

Safreed-Harmon K, Siripong A, Kerr SJ, Gruskin S, Pancharoen C, Ananworanich J. Antiretroviral therapy adherence did not differ between Thai children with biological and those with nonbiological parents. Clin Infect Dis. 2007 Sep 1; 45(5):669-70. View in: PubMed

Gruskin S, Mills EJ, Tarantola D. History, principles, and practice of health and human rights. Lancet. 2007 Aug 4; 370(9585):449-55. View in: PubMed

Tarantola D, Gruskin S. New guidance on recommended HIV testing and counselling. Lancet. 2007 Jul 21; 370(9583):202-3. View in: PubMed

Miller CM, Gruskin S, Subramanian SV, Heymann J. Emerging health disparities in Botswana: examining the situation of orphans during the AIDS epidemic. Soc Sci Med. 2007 Jun; 64(12):2476-86. View in: PubMed

Gruskin S, Ferguson L, O'Malley J. Ensuring sexual and reproductive health for people living with HIV: an overview of key human rights, policy and health systems issues. Reprod Health Matters. 2007 May; 15(29 Suppl):4-26. View in: PubMed

Gruskin S. Male circumcision, in so many words. . . Reprod Health Matters. 2007 May; 15(29):49-52. View in: PubMed

Gruskin S, Dickens B. Human rights and ethics in public health. Am J Public Health. 2006 Nov; 96(11):1903-5. View in: PubMed

Tarantola D, Gruskin S, Brown TM, Fee E. Jonathan Mann: founder of the health and human rights movement. Am J Public Health. 2006 Nov; 96(11):1942-3. View in: PubMed

Miller CM, Gruskin S, Subramanian SV, Rajaraman D, Heymann SJ. Orphan care in Botswana's working households: growing responsibilities in the absence of adequate support. Am J Public Health. 2006 Aug; 96(8):1429-35. View in: PubMed

Tarantola D, Gruskin S. Health and human rights education in academic settings. Health Hum Rights. 2006; 9(2):297-300. View in: PubMed

Cooper H, Moore L, Gruskin S, Krieger N. The impact of a police drug crackdown on drug injectors' ability to practice harm reduction: a qualitative study. Soc Sci Med. 2005 Aug; 61(3):673-84. View in: PubMed

Gruskin S, Jürgens R. The more things change. . . Health Hum Rights. 2005; 8(2):1-7. View in: PubMed

Gruskin S. Bangkok 2004. Current issues and concerns in HIV testing: a health and human rights approach. HIV AIDS Policy Law Rev. 2004 Dec; 9(3):99-103. View in: PubMed

Gruskin S. Stalled on the road to reproductive health. Am J Public Health. 2004 Aug; 94(8):1297. View in: PubMed

Cooper H, Moore L, Gruskin S, Krieger N. Characterizing perceived police violence: implications for public health. Am J Public Health. 2004 Jul; 94(7):1109-18. View in: PubMed

Gruskin S. What are health and human rights? Lancet. 2004 Jan 24; 363(9405):329. View in: PubMed

Smith-Estelle A, Gruskin S. Vulnerability to HIV/STIs among rural women from migrant communities in Nepal: a health and human rights framework. Reprod Health Matters. 2003 Nov; 11(22):142-51. View in: PubMed

Roseman MJ, Gruskin S. The UNGASS Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS: one year later. Can HIV AIDS Policy Law Rev. 2003 Apr; 8(1):1, 7-14. View in: PubMed

Braveman P, Gruskin S. Poverty, equity, human rights and health. Bull World Health Organ. 2003; 81(7):539-45. View in: PubMed

Gruskin S, Loff B. Do human rights have a role in public health work? Lancet. 2002 Dec 7; 360(9348):1880. View in: PubMed

Gruskin S, Ayres JR, Khamranksi B, Lalloo U, Marlink R. GAVI, the first steps: lessons for the Global Fund. Lancet. 2002 Jul 13; 360(9327):176. View in: PubMed

Putney SB, Gruskin S. Time, place, and consciousness: three dimensions of meaning for US institutional review boards. Am J Public Health. 2002 Jul; 92(7):1067-70. View in: PubMed

Gruskin S. Ethics, human rights, and public health. Am J Public Health. 2002 May; 92(5):698; author reply 698-9. View in: PubMed

Gruskin S. The UN General Assembly Special Session on HIV/AIDS: were some lessons of the last 20 years ignored? Am J Public Health. 2002 Mar; 92(3):337-8. View in: PubMed

Tarantola D, Gruskin S. Children confronting HIV/AIDS: charting the confluence of rights and health. Health Hum Rights. 1998; 3(1):60-86. View in: PubMed

Gruskin S. The highest priority: making use of UN conference documents to remind governments of their commitments to HIV/AIDS. Health Hum Rights. 1998; 3(1):107-42. View in: PubMed

Gruskin S, Mann J, Tarantola D. Past, present, and future: AIDS and human rights. Health Hum Rights. 1998; 2(4):1-3. View in: PubMed

Gruskin S. Negotiating the relationship of HIV/AIDS to reproductive health and reproductive rights. Am Univ Law Rev. 1995; 44:1191-205. View in: PubMed

Mann JM, Gostin L, Gruskin S, Brennan T, Lazzarini Z, Fineberg HV. Health and human rights. Health Hum Rights. 1994; 1(1):6-23. View in: PubMed

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