Faculty

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Thomas A Buchanan, MD
Professor of Medicine
Vice Dean For Research
Director of The CTSI,
Co Director, Diabetes and Obesity Research Institute
Endocrine Division Chief in The Department of Medicine
Medicine
CSC 205 Health Sciences Campus Los Angeles
+1 323 442 1803

Overview

Thomas A. Buchanan, M.D., is Professor of Medicine, Obstetrics and Gynecology, and Physiology and Biophysics; Vice Dean for Research; Chief of the Division of Endocrinology and Diabetes in the Department of Medicine in Keck School of Medicine at the University of Southern California (USC) in Los Angeles. He is also the founding director of the Southern California Clinical and Translational Science Institute.

Scientifically, Dr. Buchanan conducts research into the etiology, pathogenesis, genetics and prevention of gestational and type 2 diabetes with a focus on diabetes in Hispanic Americans. Buchanan and colleagues have conducted longitudinal studies of high risk individuals to define patterns of change in insulin resistance and insulin secretion that lead to type 2 diabetes. Based on their findings, they then conducted the first successful type 2 diabetes prevention study in the United States. The biological information gained from that study pointed to a specific pancreatic beta cell defect that is heritable, a finding that formed the basis for a large family based study that has helped to identify the genetic basis for the metabolic abnormalities that lead to type 2 diabetes. In aggregate studies performed by Buchanan and his colleagues have contributed to important advances in clinical care for gestational diabetes and the prevention of type 2 diabetes in Hispanic Americans

Administratively, Dr. Buchanan has championed the development of clinical and translational research at USC, first through his role as director of the General Clinical Research Center (1996-2010). In 2010, he led the team that created the Southern California Clinical and Translational Science Institute, which in turn won a prestigious $56.8 million Clinical and Translational Science Award from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to support and promote scientific discoveries and their application in real-life settings to health and health care. He built and directed one of the nation’s largest General Clinical Research Center (GCRC) programs. Since 2010, he has been director and principal investigator of USC’s new Southern California Clinical and Translational Science Institute (SC CTSI).

During his career, Dr. Buchanan has brought more than $180 million in extramural research funding to USC and the Keck School. He has been ranked as highly 1st at USC and 50th world-wide in annual NIH funding.

Dr. Buchanan received his medical degree from the University of Iowa, Iowa City, where he completed residency training in internal medicine. He completed his fellowship training in endocrinology and metabolism at Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago, Illinois.
A native of Iowa, Dr. Buchanan is an avid cyclist on the challenging Angeles Crest Highway near Los Angeles, a downhill skier and a dedicated family man.

Awards

American Diabetes Association: Chair, Council on Diabetes and Pregnancy, 1995-1997

NIH: Chair, Special Emphasis Panel, Hyperglycemia and Pregnancy Outcomes, 1995-1997

Association of American Physicians

Iowa State University: Phi Beta Kappa, 1974

University of Iowa: Alpha Omega Alpha, 1978

Northern Illinois Affliate: Association, 1983-1985

Australian Diabetes Association: Medisense International Lecture, 1995

Canadian Diabetes Association: Novo-Nordisk International Lecture, 1995

American Diabetes Association: Norbert Freinkel Award, 1999

University of Washington: John Ensinck Lecture, 2000

J Clin Endocrinol Metab: Endocrine Society-Pharmacia Award for Excellence in Published Clinical Research, 2002

American Diabetes Association: Distinguished Clinical Scientist Award, 2004

Irish Endocrine Society: Lilly Lecture, 2011

Western Society for Clinical Investigation: Mayo Soley Award, 2014

NIH: Chair, Special Emphasis Panel, Hyperglycemia and Pregnancy Outcomes , 1995-1997

American Diabetes Association: Norbert Freinkel Award, 1999

American Diabetes Association, Northern Illinois Affliate: Young Investigator Award, 1983

Association of American Physicians: Elected Member, 2006

University of California, Los Angeles: Josiah Brown Award, 2014

Publications

Palmer ND, Wagenknecht LE, Langefeld CD, Wang N, Buchanan TA, Xiang AH, Allayee H, Bergman RN, Raffel LJ, Chen YD, Haritunians T, Fingerlin T, Goodarzi MO, Taylor KD, Rotter JI, Watanabe RM, Bowden DW. Improved Performance of Dynamic Measures of Insulin Response Over Surrogate Indices to Identify Genetic Contributors of Type 2 Diabetes: The GUARDIAN Consortium. Diabetes. 2016 Jul; 65(7):2072-80. View in: PubMed

Tripathy D, Schwenke DC, Banerji M, Bray GA, Buchanan TA, Clement SC, Henry RR, Kitabchi AE, Mudaliar S, Ratner RE, Stentz FB, Musi N, Reaven PD, DeFronzo RA. Diabetes Incidence and Glucose Tolerance after Termination of Pioglitazone Therapy: Results from ACT NOW. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2016 May; 101(5):2056-62. View in: PubMed

Chen Z, Salam MT, Toledo-Corral C, Watanabe RM, Xiang AH, Buchanan TA, Habre R, Bastain TM, Lurmann F, Wilson JP, Trigo E, Gilliland FD. Ambient Air Pollutants Have Adverse Effects on Insulin and Glucose Homeostasis in Mexican Americans. Diabetes Care. 2016 Apr; 39(4):547-54. View in: PubMed

Baudrand R, Goodarzi MO, Vaidya A, Underwood PC, Williams JS, Jeunemaitre X, Hopkins PN, Brown N, Raby BA, Lasky-Su J, Adler GK, Cui J, Guo X, Taylor KD, Chen YD, Xiang A, Raffel LJ, Buchanan TA, Rotter JI, Williams GH, Pojoga LH. A prevalent caveolin-1 gene variant is associated with the metabolic syndrome in Caucasians and Hispanics. Metabolism. 2015 Dec; 64(12):1674-81. View in: PubMed

Palmer ND, Goodarzi MO, Langefeld CD, Wang N, Guo X, Taylor KD, Fingerlin TE, Norris JM, Buchanan TA, Xiang AH, Haritunians T, Ziegler JT, Williams AH, Stefanovski D, Cui J, Mackay AW, Henkin LF, Bergman RN, Gao X, Gauderman J, Varma R, Hanis CL, Cox NJ, Highland HM, Below JE, Williams AL, Burtt NP, Aguilar-Salinas CA, Huerta-Chagoya A, Gonzalez-Villalpando C, Orozco L, Haiman CA, Tsai MY, Johnson WC, Yao J, Rasmussen-Torvik L, Pankow J, Snively B, Jackson RD, Liu S, Nadler JL, Kandeel F, Chen YD, Bowden DW, Rich SS, Raffel LJ, Rotter JI, Watanabe RM, Wagenknecht LE. Genetic Variants Associated With Quantitative Glucose Homeostasis Traits Translate to Type 2 Diabetes in Mexican Americans: The GUARDIAN (Genetics Underlying Diabetes in Hispanics) Consortium. Diabetes. 2015 May; 64(5):1853-66. View in: PubMed

Tripathy D, Cobb JE, Gall W, Adam KP, George T, Schwenke DC, Banerji M, Bray GA, Buchanan TA, Clement SC, Henry RR, Kitabchi AE, Mudaliar S, Ratner RE, Stentz FB, Reaven PD, Musi N, Ferrannini E, DeFronzo RA. A Novel Insulin Resistance Index to Monitor Changes in Insulin Sensitivity and Glucose Tolerance: the ACT NOW Study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015 May; 100(5):1855-62. View in: PubMed

Xiang AH, Wang X, Martinez MP, Walthall JC, Curry ES, Page K, Buchanan TA, Coleman KJ, Getahun D. Association of maternal diabetes with autism in offspring. JAMA. 2015 Apr 14; 313(14):1425-34. View in: PubMed

Black MH, Wu J, Takayanagi M, Wang N, Taylor KD, Haritunians T, Trigo E, Lawrence JM, Watanabe RM, Buchanan TA, Xiang AH. Variation in PPARG Is Associated With Longitudinal Change in Insulin Resistance in Mexican Americans at Risk for Type 2 Diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015 Mar; 100(3):1187-95. View in: PubMed

Xiang AH, Black MH, Li BH, Martinez MP, Sacks DA, Lawrence JM, Buchanan TA, Jacobsen SJ. Racial and ethnic disparities in extremes of fetal growth after gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetologia. 2015 Feb; 58(2):272-81. View in: PubMed

Chen Z, Watanabe RM, Stram DO, Buchanan TA, Xiang AH. High Calorie Intake Is Associated With Worsening Insulin Resistance and ß-Cell Function in Hispanic Women After Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes Care. 2014 Dec; 37(12):3294-300. View in: PubMed

Ren J, Xiang AH, Trigo E, Takayanagi M, Beale E, Lawrence JM, Hartiala J, Richey JM, Allayee H, Buchanan TA, Watanabe RM. Genetic variation in MTNR1B is associated with gestational diabetes mellitus and contributes only to the absolute level of beta cell compensation in Mexican Americans. Diabetologia. 2014 Jul; 57(7):1391-9. View in: PubMed

Tripathy D, Clement SC, Schwenke DC, Banerji M, Bray GA, Buchanan TA, Gastaldelli A, Henry RR, Kitabchi AE, Mudaliar S, Ratner RE, Stentz FB, Musi N, Reaven PD, DeFronzo RA. Baseline Adiponectin Levels Do Not Influence the Response to Pioglitazone in ACT NOW. Diabetes Care. 2014 Jun; 37(6):1706-11. View in: PubMed

Page KA, Romero A, Buchanan TA, Xiang AH. Gestational diabetes mellitus, maternal obesity, and adiposity in offspring. J Pediatr. 2014 Apr; 164(4):807-10. View in: PubMed

Goodarzi MO, Langefeld CD, Xiang AH, Chen YD, Guo X, Hanley AJ, Raffel LJ, Kandeel F, Nadler JL, Buchanan TA, Norris JM, Fingerlin TE, Lorenzo C, Rewers MJ, Haffner SM, Bowden DW, Rich SS, Bergman RN, Rotter JI, Watanabe RM, Wagenknecht LE. Insulin sensitivity and insulin clearance are heritable and have strong genetic correlation in mexican americans. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2014 Apr; 22(4):1157-64. View in: PubMed

Dieli-Conwright CM, Mortimer JE, Schroeder ET, Courneya K, Demark-Wahnefried W, Buchanan TA, Tripathy D, Bernstein L. Randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effects of combined progressive exercise on metabolic syndrome in breast cancer survivors: rationale, design, and methods. BMC Cancer. 2014; 14(1):238. View in: PubMed

Xiang AH, Takayanagi M, Black MH, Trigo E, Lawrence JM, Watanabe RM, Buchanan TA. Longitudinal changes in insulin sensitivity and beta cell function between women with and without a history of gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetologia. 2013 Dec; 56(12):2753-60. View in: PubMed

Defronzo RA, Tripathy D, Schwenke DC, Banerji M, Bray GA, Buchanan TA, Clement SC, Henry RR, Kitabchi AE, Mudaliar S, Ratner RE, Stentz FB, Musi N, Reaven PD, Gastaldelli A. Prediction of diabetes based on baseline metabolic characteristics in individuals at high risk. Diabetes Care. 2013 Nov; 36(11):3607-12. View in: PubMed

Defronzo RA, Tripathy D, Schwenke DC, Banerji M, Bray GA, Buchanan TA, Clement SC, Gastaldelli A, Henry RR, Kitabchi AE, Mudaliar S, Ratner RE, Stentz FB, Musi N, Reaven PD. Prevention of diabetes with pioglitazone in ACT NOW: physiologic correlates. Diabetes. 2013 Nov; 62(11):3920-6. View in: PubMed

Black MH, Watanabe RM, Trigo E, Takayanagi M, Lawrence JM, Buchanan TA, Xiang AH. High-fat diet is associated with obesity-mediated insulin resistance and ß-cell dysfunction in Mexican Americans. J Nutr. 2013 Apr; 143(4):479-85. View in: PubMed

Chen Z, Black MH, Watanabe RM, Trigo E, Takayanagi M, Lawrence JM, Buchanan TA, Xiang AH. Self-reported physical activity is associated with ß-cell function in Mexican American adults. Diabetes Care. 2013 Mar; 36(3):638-44. View in: PubMed

Saremi A, Schwenke DC, Buchanan TA, Hodis HN, Mack WJ, Banerji M, Bray GA, Clement SC, Henry RR, Kitabchi AE, Mudaliar S, Ratner RE, Stentz FB, Musi N, Tripathy D, DeFronzo RA, Reaven PD. Pioglitazone slows progression of atherosclerosis in prediabetes independent of changes in cardiovascular risk factors. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2013 Feb; 33(2):393-9. View in: PubMed

The diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus: new paradigms or status quo? J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. The diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus: new paradigms or status quo? J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2012 Dec; 25(12):2564-9. View in: PubMed

Buchanan TA, Xiang AH, Page KA. Gestational diabetes mellitus: risks and management during and after pregnancy. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2012 Nov; 8(11):639-49. View in: PubMed

Farook VS, Puppala S, Schneider J, Fowler SP, Chittoor G, Dyer TD, Allayee H, Cole SA, Arya R, Black MH, Curran JE, Almasy L, Buchanan TA, Jenkinson CP, Lehman DM, Watanabe RM, Blangero J, Duggirala R. Metabolic Syndrome Is Linked to Chromosome 7q21 and Associated With Genetic Variants in CD36 and GNAT3 in Mexican Americans. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2012 Oct; 20(10):2083-92. View in: PubMed

Williams JS, Chamarthi B, Goodarzi MO, Pojoga LH, Sun B, Garza AE, Raby BA, Adler GK, Hopkins PN, Brown NJ, Jeunemaitre X, Ferri C, Fang R, Leonor T, Cui J, Guo X, Taylor KD, Ida Chen YD, Xiang A, Raffel LJ, Buchanan TA, Rotter JI, Williams GH, Shi Y. Lysine-specific demethylase 1: an epigenetic regulator of salt-sensitive hypertension. Am J Hypertens. 2012 Jul; 25(7):812-7. View in: PubMed

Segall-Gutierrez P, Xiang AH, Watanabe RM, Trigo E, Stanczyk FZ, Liu X, Jurow R, Buchanan TA. Deterioration in cardiometabolic risk markers in obese women during depot medroxyprogesterone acetate use. Contraception. 2012 Jan; 85(1):36-41. View in: PubMed

Palmer ND, McDonough CW, Hicks PJ, Roh BH, Wing MR, An SS, Hester JM, Cooke JN, Bostrom MA, Rudock ME, Talbert ME, Lewis JP. A genome-wide association search for type 2 diabetes genes in African Americans. PLoS One. 2012; 7(1):e29202. View in: PubMed

Dastani Z, Hivert MF, Timpson N, Perry JR, Yuan X, Scott RA, Henneman P, Heid IM, Kizer JR, Lyytikäinen LP, Fuchsberger C, Tanaka T, Morris AP, Small K, Isaacs A, Beekman M, Coassin S, Lohman K, Qi L, Kanoni S, Pankow JS, Uh HW, Wu Y, Bidulescu A, Rasmussen-Torvik LJ, Greenwood CM, Ladouceur M, Grimsby J, Manning AK, Liu CT, Kooner J, Mooser VE, Vollenweider P, Kapur KA, Chambers J, Wareham NJ, Langenberg C, Frants R, Willems-Vandijk K, Oostra BA, Willems SM, Lamina C, Winkler TW, Psaty BM, Tracy RP, Brody J, Chen I, Viikari J, Kähönen M, Pramstaller PP, Evans DM, St Pourcain B, Sattar N, Wood AR, Bandinelli S, Carlson OD, Egan JM, Böhringer S, van Heemst D, Kedenko L, Kristiansson K, Nuotio ML, Loo BM, Harris T, Garcia M, Kanaya A, Haun M, Klopp N, Wichmann HE, Deloukas P, Katsareli E, Couper DJ, Duncan BB, Kloppenburg M, Adair LS, Borja JB. Novel loci for adiponectin levels and their influence on type 2 diabetes and metabolic traits: a multi-ethnic meta-analysis of 45,891 individuals. PLoS Genet. 2012; 8(3):e1002607. View in: PubMed

Buchanan TA, Page KA. Approach to the patient with gestational diabetes after delivery. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Dec; 96(12):3592-8. View in: PubMed

Pojoga LH, Underwood PC, Goodarzi MO, Williams JS, Adler GK, Jeunemaitre X, Hopkins PN, Raby BA, Lasky-Su J, Sun B, Cui J, Guo X, Taylor KD, Chen YD, Xiang A, Raffel LJ, Buchanan TA, Rotter JI, Williams GH. Variants of the caveolin-1 gene: a translational investigation linking insulin resistance and hypertension. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Aug; 96(8):E1288-92. View in: PubMed

Page KA, Buchanan TA. The vicious cycle of maternal diabetes and obesity: moving from "what" to "how" and "why". J Pediatr. 2011 Jun; 158(6):872-3. View in: PubMed

Bergman RN, Stefanovski D, Buchanan TA, Sumner AE, Reynolds JC, Sebring NG, Xiang AH, Watanabe RM. A better index of body adiposity. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2011 May; 19(5):1083-9. View in: PubMed

DeFronzo RA, Tripathy D, Schwenke DC, Banerji M, Bray GA, Buchanan TA, Clement SC, Henry RR, Hodis HN, Kitabchi AE, Mack WJ, Mudaliar S, Ratner RE, Williams K, Stentz FB, Musi N, Reaven PD. Pioglitazone for diabetes prevention in impaired glucose tolerance. N Engl J Med. 2011 Mar 24; 364(12):1104-15. View in: PubMed

Buchanan TA, Watanabe RM, Xiang AH. Limitations in surrogate measures of insulin resistance. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Nov; 95(11):4874-6. View in: PubMed

Speliotes EK, Willer CJ, Berndt SI, Monda KL, Thorleifsson G, Jackson AU, Allen HL, Lindgren CM, Luan J, Mägi R, Randall JC, Vedantam S, Winkler TW, Qi L, Workalemahu T, Heid IM, Steinthorsdottir V, Stringham HM, Weedon MN, Wheeler E, Wood AR, Ferreira T, Weyant RJ, Segrè AV, Estrada K, Liang L, Nemesh J, Park JH, Gustafsson S, Kilpeläinen TO, Yang J, Bouatia-Naji N, Esko T, Feitosa MF, Kutalik Z, Mangino M, Raychaudhuri S, Scherag A, Smith AV, Welch R, Zhao JH, Aben KK, Absher DM, Amin N, Dixon AL, Fisher E, Glazer NL, Goddard ME, Heard-Costa NL, Hoesel V, Hottenga JJ, Johansson A, Johnson T, Ketkar S, Lamina C, Li S, Moffatt MF, Myers RH, Narisu N, Perry JR, Peters MJ, Preuss M, Ripatti S, Rivadeneira F, Sandholt C, Scott LJ, Timpson NJ, Tyrer JP, van Wingerden S, Watanabe RM, White CC, Wiklund F, Barlassina C, Chasman DI, Cooper MN, Jansson JO, Lawrence RW, Pellikka N, Prokopenko I, Shi J, Thiering E, Alavere H, Alibrandi MT, Almgren P, Arnold AM, Aspelund T, Atwood LD, Balkau B, Balmforth AJ, Bennett AJ, Ben-Shlomo Y, Bergman RN, Bergmann S, Biebermann H, Blakemore AI, Boes T, Bonnycastle LL, Bornstein SR, Brown MJ, Buchanan TA, Busonero F, Campbell H, Cappuccio FP, Cavalcanti-Proença C, Chen YD, Chen CM, Chines PS, Clarke R, Coin L, Connell J, Day IN, den Heijer M, Duan J, Ebrahim S, Elliott P, Elosua R, Eiriksdottir G, Erdos MR, Eriksson JG, Facheris MF, Felix SB, Fischer-Posovszky P, Folsom AR, Friedrich N, Freimer NB, Fu M, Gaget S, Gejman PV, Geus EJ, Gieger C, Gjesing AP, Goel A, Goyette P, Grallert H, Grässler J, Greenawalt DM, Groves CJ, Gudnason V, Guiducci C, Hartikainen AL, Hassanali N, Hall AS, Havulinna AS, Hayward C, Heath AC, Hengstenberg C, Hicks AA, Hinney A, Hofman A, Homuth G, Hui J, Igl W, Iribarren C, Isomaa B, Jacobs KB, Jarick I, Jewell E, John U, Jørgensen T, Jousilahti P, Jula A, Kaakinen M, Kajantie E, Kaplan LM, Kathiresan S, Kettunen J, Kinnunen L, Knowles JW, Kolcic I, König IR, Koskinen S, Kovacs P, Kuusisto J, Kraft P, Kvaløy K, Laitinen J, Lantieri O, Lanzani C, Launer LJ, Lecoeur C, Lehtimäki T, Lettre G, Liu J, Lokki ML, Lorentzon M, Luben RN, Ludwig B. Association analyses of 249,796 individuals reveal 18 new loci associated with body mass index. Nat Genet. 2010 Nov; 42(11):937-48. View in: PubMed

Heid IM, Jackson AU, Randall JC, Winkler TW, Qi L, Steinthorsdottir V, Thorleifsson G, Zillikens MC, Speliotes EK, Mägi R, Workalemahu T, White CC, Bouatia-Naji N, Harris TB, Berndt SI, Ingelsson E, Willer CJ, Weedon MN, Luan J, Vedantam S, Esko T, Kilpeläinen TO, Kutalik Z, Li S, Monda KL, Dixon AL, Holmes CC, Kaplan LM, Liang L, Min JL, Moffatt MF, Molony C, Nicholson G, Schadt EE, Zondervan KT, Feitosa MF, Ferreira T, Allen HL, Weyant RJ, Wheeler E, Wood AR. Meta-analysis identifies 13 new loci associated with waist-hip ratio and reveals sexual dimorphism in the genetic basis of fat distribution. Nat Genet. 2010 Nov; 42(11):949-60. View in: PubMed

Xiang AH, Kjos SL, Takayanagi M, Trigo E, Buchanan TA. Detailed physiological characterization of the development of type 2 diabetes in Hispanic women with prior gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetes. 2010 Oct; 59(10):2625-30. View in: PubMed

Buchanan TA, Xiang AH. Preventing type 2 diabetes with low-dose combinations. Lancet. 2010 Jul 10; 376(9735):72-4. View in: PubMed

Buchanan TA. Stemming the tide of type 2 diabetes: bring on the "big guns". Obesity (Silver Spring). 2010 Jun; 18(6):1065-7. View in: PubMed

Ingelsson E, Langenberg C, Hivert MF, Prokopenko I, Lyssenko V, Dupuis J, Mägi R, Sharp S, Jackson AU, Assimes TL, Shrader P, Knowles JW, Zethelius B, Abbasi FA, Bergman RN, Bergmann A, Berne C, Boehnke M, Bonnycastle LL, Bornstein SR, Buchanan TA, Bumpstead SJ, Böttcher Y, Chines P, Collins FS, Cooper CC, Dennison EM, Erdos MR, Ferrannini E, Fox CS, Graessler J, Hao K, Isomaa B, Jameson KA, Kovacs P, Kuusisto J, Laakso M, Ladenvall C, Mohlke KL, Morken MA, Narisu N, Nathan DM, Pascoe L, Payne F, Petrie JR, Sayer AA, Schwarz PE, Scott LJ, Stringham HM, Stumvoll M, Swift AJ, Syvänen AC, Tuomi T, Tuomilehto J, Tönjes A, Valle TT, Williams GH, Lind L, Barroso I, Quertermous T, Walker M, Wareham NJ, Meigs JB, McCarthy MI, Groop L, Watanabe RM, Florez JC. Detailed physiologic characterization reveals diverse mechanisms for novel genetic Loci regulating glucose and insulin metabolism in humans. Diabetes. 2010 May; 59(5):1266-75. View in: PubMed

Buchanan TA, Xiang AH. Diabetes: preventing type 2 diabetes mellitus: is metformin the answer? Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2010 May; 6(5):253-4. View in: PubMed

Mittelman SD, Klier K, Braun S, Azen C, Geffner ME, Buchanan TA. Obese adolescents show impaired meal responses of the appetite-regulating hormones ghrelin and PYY. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2010 May; 18(5):918-25. View in: PubMed

International association of diabetes and pregnancy study groups recommendations on the diagnosis and classification of hyperglycemia in pregnancy. Diabetes Care. 2010 Mar; 33(3):676-82. View in: PubMed

Xiang AH, Kawakubo M, Trigo E, Kjos SL, Buchanan TA. Declining beta-cell compensation for insulin resistance in Hispanic women with recent gestational diabetes mellitus: association with changes in weight, adiponectin, and C-reactive protein. Diabetes Care. 2010 Feb; 33(2):396-401. View in: PubMed

Saxena R, Hivert MF, Langenberg C, Tanaka T, Pankow JS, Vollenweider P, Lyssenko V, Bouatia-Naji N, Dupuis J, Jackson AU, Kao WH, Li M, Glazer NL, Manning AK, Luan J, Stringham HM, Prokopenko I, Johnson T, Grarup N, Boesgaard TW, Lecoeur C, Shrader P, O'Connell J, Ingelsson E, Couper DJ, Rice K, Song K, Andreasen CH, Dina C, Köttgen A, Le Bacquer O, Pattou F, Taneera J, Steinthorsdottir V, Rybin D, Ardlie K, Sampson M, Qi L, van Hoek M, Weedon MN, Aulchenko YS, Voight BF, Grallert H, Balkau B, Bergman RN, Bielinski SJ, Bonnefond A, Bonnycastle LL, Borch-Johnsen K, Böttcher Y, Brunner E, Buchanan TA, Bumpstead SJ, Cavalcanti-Proença C, Charpentier G, Chen YD, Chines PS, Collins FS, Cornelis M, J Crawford G, Delplanque J, Doney A, Egan JM, Erdos MR, Firmann M, Forouhi NG, Fox CS, Goodarzi MO, Graessler J, Hingorani A, Isomaa B, Jørgensen T, Kivimaki M, Kovacs P, Krohn K, Kumari M, Lauritzen T, Lévy-Marchal C, Mayor V, McAteer JB, Meyre D, Mitchell BD, Mohlke KL, Morken MA, Narisu N, Palmer CN, Pakyz R, Pascoe L, Payne F, Pearson D, Rathmann W, Sandbaek A, Sayer AA, Scott LJ, Sharp SJ, Sijbrands E, Singleton A, Siscovick DS, Smith NL, Sparsø T, Swift AJ, Syddall H, Thorleifsson G, Tönjes A, Tuomi T, Tuomilehto J, Valle TT, Waeber G, Walley A, Waterworth DM, Zeggini E, Zhao JH. Genetic variation in GIPR influences the glucose and insulin responses to an oral glucose challenge. Nat Genet. 2010 Feb; 42(2):142-8. View in: PubMed

Li X, Shu YH, Xiang AH, Trigo E, Kuusisto J, Hartiala J, Swift AJ, Kawakubo M, Stringham HM, Bonnycastle LL, Lawrence JM, Laakso M, Allayee H, Buchanan TA, Watanabe RM. Additive effects of genetic variation in GCK and G6PC2 on insulin secretion and fasting glucose. Diabetes. 2009 Dec; 58(12):2946-53. View in: PubMed

Shu YH, Hartiala J, Xiang AH, Trigo E, Lawrence JM, Allayee H, Buchanan TA, Bottini N, Watanabe RM. Evidence for sex-specific associations between variation in acid phosphatase locus 1 (ACP1) and insulin sensitivity in Mexican-Americans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009 Oct; 94(10):4094-102. View in: PubMed

Goodarzi MO, Taylor KD, Jones MR, Fang B, Guo X, Xiang AH, Buchanan TA, Hodis HN, Raffel LJ, Rotter JI. Replication of calpain-10 genetic association with carotid intima-media thickness. Atherosclerosis. 2009 Aug; 205(2):503-5. View in: PubMed

Li X, Allayee H, Xiang AH, Trigo E, Hartiala J, Lawrence JM, Buchanan TA, Watanabe RM. Variation in IGF2BP2 interacts with adiposity to alter insulin sensitivity in Mexican Americans. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2009 Apr; 17(4):729-36. View in: PubMed

Defronzo RA, Banerji M, Bray GA, Buchanan TA, Clement S, Henry RR, Kitabchi AE, Mudaliar S, Musi N, Ratner R, Reaven PD, Schwenke D, Stentz FB, Tripathy D. Actos Now for the prevention of diabetes (ACT NOW) study. BMC Endocr Disord. 2009; 9:17. View in: PubMed

Prokopenko I, Langenberg C, Florez JC, Saxena R, Soranzo N, Thorleifsson G, Loos RJ, Manning AK, Jackson AU, Aulchenko Y, Potter SC, Erdos MR, Sanna S, Hottenga JJ, Wheeler E, Kaakinen M, Lyssenko V, Chen WM, Ahmadi K, Beckmann JS, Bergman RN, Bochud M, Bonnycastle LL, Buchanan TA, Cao A, Cervino A, Coin L, Collins FS, Crisponi L, de Geus EJ, Dehghan A, Deloukas P, Doney AS, Elliott P, Freimer N, Gateva V, Herder C, Hofman A, Hughes TE, Hunt S, Illig T, Inouye M, Isomaa B, Johnson T, Kong A, Krestyaninova M, Kuusisto J, Laakso M, Lim N, Lindblad U, Lindgren CM, McCann OT, Mohlke KL, Morris AD, Naitza S, Orrù M, Palmer CN, Pouta A, Randall J, Rathmann W, Saramies J, Scheet P, Scott LJ, Scuteri A, Sharp S, Sijbrands E, Smit JH, Song K, Steinthorsdottir V, Stringham HM, Tuomi T, Tuomilehto J, Uitterlinden AG, Voight BF, Waterworth D, Wichmann HE, Willemsen G, Witteman JC, Yuan X, Zhao JH, Zeggini E, Schlessinger D, Sandhu M, Boomsma DI, Uda M, Spector TD, Penninx BW, Altshuler D, Vollenweider P, Jarvelin MR, Lakatta E, Waeber G, Fox CS, Peltonen L, Groop LC, Mooser V, Cupples LA, Thorsteinsdottir U, Boehnke M, Barroso I, Van Duijn C, Dupuis J, Watanabe RM, Stefansson K, McCarthy MI, Wareham NJ, Meigs JB, Abecasis GR. Variants in MTNR1B influence fasting glucose levels. Nat Genet. 2009 Jan; 41(1):77-81. View in: PubMed

Chen WM, Erdos MR, Jackson AU, Saxena R, Sanna S, Silver KD, Timpson NJ, Hansen T, Orrù M, Grazia Piras M, Bonnycastle LL, Willer CJ, Lyssenko V, Shen H, Kuusisto J, Ebrahim S, Sestu N, Duren WL, Spada MC, Stringham HM, Scott LJ, Olla N, Swift AJ, Najjar S, Mitchell BD, Lawlor DA, Smith GD, Ben-Shlomo Y, Andersen G, Borch-Johnsen K, Jørgensen T, Saramies J, Valle TT, Buchanan TA, Shuldiner AR, Lakatta E, Bergman RN, Uda M, Tuomilehto J, Pedersen O, Cao A, Groop L, Mohlke KL, Laakso M, Schlessinger D, Collins FS, Altshuler D, Abecasis GR, Boehnke M, Scuteri A, Watanabe RM. Variations in the G6PC2/ABCB11 genomic region are associated with fasting glucose levels. J Clin Invest. 2008 Jul; 118(7):2620-8. View in: PubMed

Xiang AH, Hodis HN, Kawakubo M, Peters RK, Kjos SL, Marroquin A, Goico J, Ochoa C, Liu CR, Liu CH, Buchanan TA. Effect of pioglitazone on progression of subclinical atherosclerosis in non-diabetic premenopausal Hispanic women with prior gestational diabetes. Atherosclerosis. 2008 Jul; 199(1):207-14. View in: PubMed

Chen YC, Guo X, Raffel LJ, Xiang AH, Fang B, Hsueh WA, Taylor KD, Buchanan TA, Hodis HN, Rotter JI. Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) cosegregates with blood pressure and renal function in hypertensive Hispanic families. Atherosclerosis. 2008 May; 198(1):160-5. View in: PubMed

Kopf D, Cheng LS, Blandau P, Hsueh W, Raffel LJ, Buchanan TA, Xiang AH, Davis RC, Rotter JI, Lehnert H. Association of insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance with the c. 825C>T variant of the G protein beta-3 subunit gene. J Diabetes Complications. 2008 May-Jun; 22(3):205-9. View in: PubMed

Black MH, Fingerlin TE, Allayee H, Zhang W, Xiang AH, Trigo E, Hartiala J, Lehtinen AB, Haffner SM, Bergman RN, McEachin RC, Kjos SL, Lawrence JM, Buchanan TA, Watanabe RM. Evidence of interaction between PPARG2 and HNF4A contributing to variation in insulin sensitivity in Mexican Americans. Diabetes. 2008 Apr; 57(4):1048-56. View in: PubMed

Xiang AH, Kawakubo M, Buchanan TA, Kjos SL. A longitudinal study of lipids and blood pressure in relation to method of contraception in Latino women with prior gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care. 2007 Aug; 30(8):1952-8. View in: PubMed

Buchanan TA, Xiang A, Kjos SL, Watanabe R. What is gestational diabetes? Diabetes Care. 2007 Jul; 30 Suppl 2:S105-11. View in: PubMed

Metzger BE, Buchanan TA, Coustan DR, de Leiva A, Dunger DB, Hadden DR, Hod M, Kitzmiller JL, Kjos SL, Oats JN, Pettitt DJ, Sacks DA, Zoupas C. Summary and recommendations of the Fifth International Workshop-Conference on Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes Care. 2007 Jul; 30 Suppl 2:S251-60. View in: PubMed

Watanabe RM, Black MH, Xiang AH, Allayee H, Lawrence JM, Buchanan TA. Genetics of gestational diabetes mellitus and type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2007 Jul; 30 Suppl 2:S134-40. View in: PubMed

Buchanan TA. (How) can we prevent type 2 diabetes? Diabetes. 2007 Jun; 56(6):1502-7. View in: PubMed

Scott LJ, Mohlke KL, Bonnycastle LL, Willer CJ, Li Y, Duren WL, Erdos MR, Stringham HM, Chines PS, Jackson AU, Prokunina-Olsson L, Ding CJ, Swift AJ, Narisu N, Hu T, Pruim R, Xiao R, Li XY, Conneely KN, Riebow NL, Sprau AG, Tong M, White PP, Hetrick KN, Barnhart MW, Bark CW, Goldstein JL, Watkins L, Xiang F, Saramies J, Buchanan TA, Watanabe RM, Valle TT, Kinnunen L, Abecasis GR, Pugh EW, Doheny KF, Bergman RN, Tuomilehto J, Collins FS, Boehnke M. A genome-wide association study of type 2 diabetes in Finns detects multiple susceptibility variants. Science. 2007 Jun 1; 316(5829):1341-5. View in: PubMed

Watanabe RM, Allayee H, Xiang AH, Trigo E, Hartiala J, Lawrence JM, Buchanan TA. Transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) is associated with gestational diabetes mellitus and interacts with adiposity to alter insulin secretion in Mexican Americans. Diabetes. 2007 May; 56(5):1481-5. View in: PubMed

Zheng L, Hodis HN, Buchanan TA, Li Y, Mack WJ. Effect of antihypertensive therapy on progression of carotid intima-media thickness in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Am J Cardiol. 2007 Apr 1; 99(7):956-60. View in: PubMed

Willer CJ, Bonnycastle LL, Conneely KN, Duren WL, Jackson AU, Scott LJ, Narisu N, Chines PS, Skol A, Stringham HM, Petrie J, Erdos MR, Swift AJ, Enloe ST, Sprau AG, Smith E, Tong M, Doheny KF, Pugh EW, Watanabe RM, Buchanan TA, Valle TT, Bergman RN, Tuomilehto J, Mohlke KL, Collins FS, Boehnke M. Screening of 134 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously associated with type 2 diabetes replicates association with 12 SNPs in nine genes. Diabetes. 2007 Jan; 56(1):256-64. View in: PubMed

Shtir C, Nagakawa IS, Duren WL, Conneely KN, Scott LJ, Silander K, Valle TT, Tuomilehto J, Buchanan TA, Bergman RN, Collins FS, Boehnke M, Watanabe RM. Subsets of Finns with high HDL to total cholesterol ratio show evidence for linkage to type 2 diabetes on chromosome 6q. Hum Hered. 2007; 63(1):17-25. View in: PubMed

Bonnycastle LL, Willer CJ, Conneely KN, Jackson AU, Burrill CP, Watanabe RM, Chines PS, Narisu N, Scott LJ, Enloe ST, Swift AJ, Duren WL, Stringham HM, Erdos MR, Riebow NL, Buchanan TA, Valle TT, Tuomilehto J, Bergman RN, Mohlke KL, Boehnke M, Collins FS. Common variants in maturity-onset diabetes of the young genes contribute to risk of type 2 diabetes in Finns. Diabetes. 2006 Sep; 55(9):2534-40. View in: PubMed

Hodis HN, Mack WJ, Zheng L, Li Y, Torres M, Sevilla D, Stewart Y, Hollen B, Garcia K, Alaupovic P, Buchanan TA. Effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonist treatment on subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with insulin-requiring type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2006 Jul; 29(7):1545-53. View in: PubMed

Herbst KL, Calof OM, Hsia SH, Sinha-Hikim I, Woodhouse LJ, Buchanan TA, Bhasin S. Effects of transdermal testosterone administration on insulin sensitivity, fat mass and distribution, and markers of inflammation and thrombolysis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected women with mild to moderate weight loss. Fertil Steril. 2006 Jun; 85(6):1794-802. View in: PubMed

Xiang AH, Wang C, Peters RK, Trigo E, Kjos SL, Buchanan TA. Coordinate changes in plasma glucose and pancreatic beta-cell function in Latino women at high risk for type 2 diabetes. Diabetes. 2006 Apr; 55(4):1074-9. View in: PubMed

Xiang AH, Kawakubo M, Kjos SL, Buchanan TA. Long-acting injectable progestin contraception and risk of type 2 diabetes in Latino women with prior gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care. 2006 Mar; 29(3):613-7. View in: PubMed

Xiang AH, Peters RK, Kjos SL, Marroquin A, Goico J, Ochoa C, Kawakubo M, Buchanan TA. Effect of pioglitazone on pancreatic beta-cell function and diabetes risk in Hispanic women with prior gestational diabetes. Diabetes. 2006 Feb; 55(2):517-22. View in: PubMed

Mohlke KL, Jackson AU, Scott LJ, Peck EC, Suh YD, Chines PS, Watanabe RM, Buchanan TA, Conneely KN, Erdos MR, Narisu N, Enloe S, Valle TT, Tuomilehto J, Bergman RN, Boehnke M, Collins FS. Mitochondrial polymorphisms and susceptibility to type 2 diabetes-related traits in Finns. Hum Genet. 2005 Nov; 118(2):245-54. View in: PubMed

Wolford JK, Yeatts KA, Dhanjal SK, Black MH, Xiang AH, Buchanan TA, Watanabe RM. Sequence variation in PPARG may underlie differential response to troglitazone. Diabetes. 2005 Nov; 54(11):3319-25. View in: PubMed

Montoro MN, Kjos SL, Chandler M, Peters RK, Xiang AH, Buchanan TA. Insulin resistance and preeclampsia in gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care. 2005 Aug; 28(8):1995-2000. View in: PubMed

Buchanan TA, Xiang AH. Use of medications to prevent type 2 diabetes. Curr Diab Rep. 2005 Aug; 5(4):237-9. View in: PubMed

Xiang AH, Peters RK, Kjos SL, Ochoa C, Marroquin A, Goico J, Tan S, Wang C, Azen SP, Liu CR, Liu CH, Hodis HN, Buchanan TA. Effect of thiazolidinedione treatment on progression of subclinical atherosclerosis in premenopausal women at high risk for type 2 diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005 Apr; 90(4):1986-91. View in: PubMed

Buchanan TA, Xiang AH. Gestational diabetes mellitus. J Clin Invest. 2005 Mar; 115(3):485-91. View in: PubMed

Lei B, Morris DP, Smith MP, Svetkey LP, Newman MF, Rotter JI, Buchanan TA, Beckstrom-Sternberg SM, Green ED, Schwinn DA. Novel human alpha1a-adrenoceptor single nucleotide polymorphisms alter receptor pharmacology and biological function. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2005 Mar; 371(3):229-39. View in: PubMed

Snitker S, Watanabe RM, Ani I, Xiang AH, Marroquin A, Ochoa C, Goico J, Shuldiner AR, Buchanan TA. Changes in insulin sensitivity in response to troglitazone do not differ between subjects with and without the common, functional Pro12Ala peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma2 gene variant: results from the Troglitazone in Prevention of Diabetes (TRIPOD) study. Diabetes Care. 2004 Jun; 27(6):1365-8. View in: PubMed

Xiang AH, Peters RK, Kjos SL, Goico J, Ochoa C, Marroquin A, Tan S, Hodis HN, Azen SP, Buchanan TA. Pharmacological treatment of insulin resistance at two different stages in the evolution of type 2 diabetes: impact on glucose tolerance and beta-cell function. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Jun; 89(6):2846-51. View in: PubMed

Chez MG, Buchanan T, Aimonovitch M, Mrazek S, Krasne V, Langburt W, Memon S. Frequency of EEG abnormalities in age-matched siblings of autistic children with abnormal sleep EEG patterns. Epilepsy Behav. 2004 Apr; 5(2):159-62. View in: PubMed

Pajvani UB, Hawkins M, Combs TP, Rajala MW, Doebber T, Berger JP, Wagner JA, Wu M, Knopps A, Xiang AH, Utzschneider KM, Kahn SE, Olefsky JM, Buchanan TA, Scherer PE. Complex distribution, not absolute amount of adiponectin, correlates with thiazolidinedione-mediated improvement in insulin sensitivity. J Biol Chem. 2004 Mar 26; 279(13):12152-62. View in: PubMed

Silander K, Scott LJ, Valle TT, Mohlke KL, Stringham HM, Wiles KR, Duren WL, Doheny KF, Pugh EW, Chines P, Narisu N, White PP, Fingerlin TE, Jackson AU, Li C, Ghosh S, Magnuson VL, Colby K, Erdos MR, Hill JE, Hollstein P, Humphreys KM, Kasad RA, Lambert J, Lazaridis KN, Lin G, Morales-Mena A, Patzkowski K, Pfahl C, Porter R, Rha D, Segal L, Suh YD, Tovar J, Unni A, Welch C, Douglas JA, Epstein MP, Hauser ER, Hagopian W, Buchanan TA, Watanabe RM, Bergman RN, Tuomilehto J, Collins FS, Boehnke M. A large set of Finnish affected sibling pair families with type 2 diabetes suggests susceptibility loci on chromosomes 6, 11, and 14. Diabetes. 2004 Mar; 53(3):821-9. View in: PubMed

Young EM, Considine RV, Sattler FR, Deeg MA, Buchanan TA, Degawa-Yamauchi M, Shankar S, Edmondson-Melançon H, Hernandez J, Dubé MP. Changes in thrombolytic and inflammatory markers after initiation of indinavir- or amprenavir-based antiretroviral therapy. Cardiovasc Toxicol. 2004; 4(2):179-86. View in: PubMed

Zheng L, Buchanan TA, Hodis HN, Li Y, Torres M, Mack WJ. Time from diagnosis of type 2 diabetes to initiation of insulin therapy is related to carotid artery intima-media thickness. Atherosclerosis. 2003 Oct; 170(2):293-9. View in: PubMed

Sacks DA, Chen W, Wolde-Tsadik G, Buchanan TA. Fasting plasma glucose test at the first prenatal visit as a screen for gestational diabetes. Obstet Gynecol. 2003 Jun; 101(6):1197-203. View in: PubMed

King DE, Mainous AG, Buchanan TA, Pearson WS. C-reactive protein and glycemic control in adults with diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2003 May; 26(5):1535-9. View in: PubMed

Buchanan TA. Prevention of type 2 diabetes: what is it really? Diabetes Care. 2003 Apr; 26(4):1306-8. View in: PubMed

Calverley DC, Hacker MR, Loda KA, Brass E, Buchanan TA, Tsao-Wei DD, Groshen S. Increased platelet Fc receptor expression as a potential contributing cause of platelet hypersensitivity to collagen in diabetes mellitus. Br J Haematol. 2003 Apr; 121(1):139-42. View in: PubMed

Buchanan TA, Kjos SL. Counterpoint: glucose monitoring in gestational diabetes: lots of heat, not much light. Diabetes Care. 2003 Mar; 26(3):948-9. View in: PubMed

Buchanan TA. Pancreatic beta-cell loss and preservation in type 2 diabetes. Clin Ther. 2003; 25 Suppl B:B32-46. View in: PubMed

Buchanan TA, Xiang AH, Peters RK, Kjos SL, Marroquin A, Goico J, Ochoa C, Tan S, Berkowitz K, Hodis HN, Azen SP. Preservation of pancreatic beta-cell function and prevention of type 2 diabetes by pharmacological treatment of insulin resistance in high-risk hispanic women. Diabetes. 2002 Sep; 51(9):2796-803. View in: PubMed

Dubé MP, Qian D, Edmondson-Melançon H, Sattler FR, Goodwin D, Martinez C, Williams V, Johnson D, Buchanan TA. Prospective, intensive study of metabolic changes associated with 48 weeks of amprenavir-based antiretroviral therapy. Clin Infect Dis. 2002 Aug 15; 35(4):475-81. View in: PubMed

Sobel BE, Neimane D, Mack WJ, Hodis HN, Buchanan TA. The ratio of plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 activity to the concentration of plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 protein in diabetes: adding insult to injury. Coron Artery Dis. 2002 Aug; 13(5):275-81. View in: PubMed

Xiang AH, Azen SP, Buchanan TA, Raffel LJ, Tan S, Cheng LS, Diaz J, Toscano E, Quinonnes M, Liu CR, Liu CH, Castellani LW, Hsueh WA, Rotter JI, Hodis HN. Heritability of subclinical atherosclerosis in Latino families ascertained through a hypertensive parent. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2002 May 1; 22(5):843-8. View in: PubMed

Fingerlin TE, Erdos MR, Watanabe RM, Wiles KR, Stringham HM, Mohlke KL, Silander K, Valle TT, Buchanan TA, Tuomilehto J, Bergman RN, Boehnke M, Collins FS. Variation in three single nucleotide polymorphisms in the calpain-10 gene not associated with type 2 diabetes in a large Finnish cohort. Diabetes. 2002 May; 51(5):1644-8. View in: PubMed

Schaefer-Graf UM, Buchanan TA, Xiang AH, Peters RK, Kjos SL. Clinical predictors for a high risk for the development of diabetes mellitus in the early puerperium in women with recent gestational diabetes mellitus. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2002 Apr; 186(4):751-6. View in: PubMed

Zink TM, Shireman TI, Ho M, Buchanan T. High-risk teen compliance with prescription contraception: an analysis of Ohio Medicaid claims. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2002 Feb; 15(1):15-21. View in: PubMed

Singh AB, Hsia S, Alaupovic P, Sinha-Hikim I, Woodhouse L, Buchanan TA, Shen R, Bross R, Berman N, Bhasin S. The effects of varying doses of T on insulin sensitivity, plasma lipids, apolipoproteins, and C-reactive protein in healthy young men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Jan; 87(1):136-43. View in: PubMed

Oh YT, Tran D, Buchanan TA, Selsted ME, Youn JH. The theta-defensin RTD-1 improves insulin action and normalizes plasma glucose and FFA levels in diet-induced obese rats. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2015 May 19; ajpendo. 00131. 2015. View in: PubMed

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