Faculty

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William Gauderman, PhD
Professor of Preventive Medicine
Preventive Medicine
SSB 202K 2001 N. Soto Street Health Sciences Campus Los Angeles
+1 323 442 1567

Overview

Dr. Gauderman's research falls into two distinct areas:

1) developing statistical methods for genetic-epidemiologic analysis of pedigree data; 2) design and analysis of studies relating health outcomes to environmental exposures. In the field of genetic-epidemiology, he has developed models and methods of estimation for complex traits that depend on both genetic and environment causes, possibly interacting. He has evaluated a technique known as joint segregation and linkage analysis and has found it to be an efficient strategy both for detecting linkage and for estimating gene-environment interactions when the disease gene has not yet been identified. He has also compared various case-control designs for studying measured genes (e.g. candidate genes). In the field of environmental health, he works with the Children's Health Study, a multi-community study of lung function and respiratory health in school-aged children in the Southern California area. The ultimate goal of this research is to determine whether air pollution, or particular components of air pollution such as ozone, is associated with reduced lung growth and increased incidence of asthma, bronchitis, and other respiratory illnesses. He is also the principal investigator of the biostatistics core of the NIEHS Center, and thus is available for statistical consultation for projects involving environmental health.

Publications

Genome-wide Interaction Analysis of Air Pollution Exposure and Childhood Asthma with Functional Follow-up. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2016 Nov 30. View in: PubMed

Genome-wide association study identifies WNT7B as a novel locus for central corneal thickness in Latinos. Hum Mol Genet. 2016 Nov 15; 25(22):5035-5045. View in: PubMed

E-cigarettes, Cigarettes, and the Prevalence of Adolescent Tobacco Use. Pediatrics. 2016 Aug; 138(2). View in: PubMed

Air Pollution and Lung Function in Minority Youth with Asthma in the GALA II (Genes-Environments and Admixture in Latino Americans) and SAGE II (Study of African Americans, Asthma, Genes, and Environments) Studies. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2016 Jun 1; 193(11):1271-80. View in: PubMed

Association of Changes in Air Quality With Bronchitic Symptoms in Children in California, 1993-2012. JAMA. 2016 Apr 12; 315(14):1491-501. View in: PubMed

Increased yield of actionable mutations using multi-gene panels to assess hereditary cancer susceptibility in an ethnically diverse clinical cohort. Cancer Genet. 2016 Apr; 209(4):130-7. View in: PubMed

Correction: Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Promoter Haplotypes and Residential Traffic-Related Air Pollution Jointly Influence Exhaled Nitric Oxide Level in Children. PLoS One. 2016; 11(5):e0155567. View in: PubMed

Rising rates of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in Hispanic children: trends in incidence from 1992 to 2011. Blood. 2015 May 7; 125(19):3033-4. View in: PubMed

Association of improved air quality with lung development in children. N Engl J Med. 2015 Mar 5; 372(10):905-13. View in: PubMed

Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Promoter Haplotypes and Residential Traffic-Related Air Pollution Jointly Influence Exhaled Nitric Oxide Level in Children. PLoS One. 2015; 10(12):e0145363. View in: PubMed

Genetic ancestry influences asthma susceptibility and lung function among Latinos. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2015 Jan; 135(1):228-35. View in: PubMed

15q12 Variants, Sputum Gene Promoter Hypermethylation, and Lung Cancer Risk: A GWAS in Smokers. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2015; 107(5). View in: PubMed

Ethnic-specific associations of rare and low-frequency DNA sequence variants with asthma. Nat Commun. 2015; 6:5965. View in: PubMed

Genome-wide association study of colorectal cancer identifies six new susceptibility loci. Nat Commun. 2015; 6:7138. View in: PubMed

Corrigendum: Genome-wide association study of colorectal cancer identifies six new susceptibility loci. Nat Commun. 2015; 6:8739. View in: PubMed

No evidence of gene-calcium interactions from genome-wide analysis of colorectal cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2014 Dec; 23(12):2971-6. View in: PubMed

Genome-wide interaction studies reveal sex-specific asthma risk alleles. Hum Mol Genet. 2014 Oct 1; 23(19):5251-9. View in: PubMed

Native american ancestry is associated with severe diabetic retinopathy in latinos. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2014 Sep; 55(9):6041-5. View in: PubMed

Fraction of exhaled nitric oxide values in childhood are associated with 17q11. 2-q12 and 17q12-q21 variants. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014 Jul; 134(1):46-55. View in: PubMed

Associations of children's lung function with ambient air pollution: joint effects of regional and near-roadway pollutants. Thorax. 2014 Jun; 69(6):540-7. View in: PubMed

NOS1 Methylation and Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness in Children. Circ Cardiovasc Genet. 2014 Apr 1; 7(2):116-22. View in: PubMed

Genome-wide diet-gene interaction analyses for risk of colorectal cancer. PLoS Genet. 2014 Apr; 10(4):e1004228. View in: PubMed

Integrated genome-wide association, coexpression network, and expression single nucleotide polymorphism analysis identifies novel pathway in allergic rhinitis. BMC Med Genomics. 2014; 7(1):48. View in: PubMed

Native american ancestry affects the risk for gene methylation in the lungs of Hispanic smokers from new Mexico. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2013 Nov 1; 188(9):1110-6. View in: PubMed

Finding novel genes by testing G × E interactions in a genome-wide association study. Genet Epidemiol. 2013 Sep; 37(6):603-13. View in: PubMed

Childhood infections and adult height in monozygotic twin pairs. Am J Epidemiol. 2013 Aug 15; 178(4):551-8. View in: PubMed

Efficient two-step testing of gene-gene interactions in genome-wide association studies. Genet Epidemiol. 2013 Jul; 37(5):440-51. View in: PubMed

A genome-wide association study of central corneal thickness in Latinos. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013 Apr; 54(4):2435-43. View in: PubMed

A meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for serum total IgE in diverse study populations. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2013 Apr; 131(4):1176-84. View in: PubMed

Confounding and heterogeneity in genetic association studies with admixed populations. Am J Epidemiol. 2013 Feb 15; 177(4):351-60. View in: PubMed

Parental smoking and risk of childhood brain tumors by functional polymorphisms in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolism genes. PLoS One. 2013; 8(11):e79110. View in: PubMed

Integration of mouse and human genome-wide association data identifies KCNIP4 as an asthma gene. PLoS One. 2013; 8(2):e56179. View in: PubMed

Further replication studies of the EVE Consortium meta-analysis identifies 2 asthma risk loci in European Americans. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012 Dec; 130(6):1294-301. View in: PubMed

Accuracy of a new time-resolved step counter in children. Pediatr Exerc Sci. 2012 Nov; 24(4):622-33. View in: PubMed

Predictors of intra-community variation in air quality. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2012 Mar; 22(2):135-47. View in: PubMed

Invited Commentary: GE-Whiz! Ratcheting Gene-Environment Studies up to the Whole Genome and the Whole Exposome. Am J Epidemiol. 2012 Feb 1; 175(3):203-7. View in: PubMed

Genotype Imputation for Latinos Using the HapMap and 1000 Genomes Project Reference Panels. Front Genet. 2012; 3:117. View in: PubMed

A genome-wide association meta-analysis identifies new childhood obesity loci. Nat Genet. 2012; 44(5):526-31. View in: PubMed

Using extreme phenotype sampling to identify the rare causal variants of quantitative traits in association studies. Genet Epidemiol. 2011 Dec; 35(8):790-9. View in: PubMed

Parental stress increases the detrimental effect of traffic exposure on children's lung function. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011 Oct 1; 184(7):822-7. View in: PubMed

Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of asthma in ethnically diverse North American populations. Nat Genet. 2011 Sep; 43(9):887-92. View in: PubMed

Association of the calcyon neuron-specific vesicular protein gene (CALY) with adolescent smoking initiation in China and California. Am J Epidemiol. 2011 May 1; 173(9):1039-48. View in: PubMed

Sample size requirements to detect gene-environment interactions in genome-wide association studies. Genet Epidemiol. 2011 Apr; 35(3):201-10. View in: PubMed

Genetic variations in nitric oxide synthase and arginase influence exhaled nitric oxide levels in children. Allergy. 2011 Mar; 66(3):412-9. View in: PubMed

Genetic variation in the glutathione synthesis pathway, air pollution, and children's lung function growth. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011 Jan 15; 183(2):243-8. View in: PubMed

TSLP polymorphisms are associated with asthma in a sex-specific fashion. Allergy. 2010 Dec; 65(12):1566-75. View in: PubMed

PDE11A associations with asthma: results of a genome-wide association scan. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010 Oct; 126(4):871-873. e9. View in: PubMed

Discovery of complex pathways from observational data. Stat Med. 2010 Aug 30; 29(19):1998-2011. View in: PubMed

Efficient genome-wide association testing of gene-environment interaction in case-parent trios. Am J Epidemiol. 2010 Jul 1; 172(1):116-22. View in: PubMed

Role of inducible nitric oxide synthase in asthma risk and lung function growth during adolescence. Thorax. 2010 Feb; 65(2):139-45. View in: PubMed

Functional variants in the catalase and myeloperoxidase genes, ambient air pollution, and respiratory-related school absences: an example of epistasis in gene-environment interactions. Am J Epidemiol. 2009 Dec 15; 170(12):1494-501. View in: PubMed

Genome-wide association analysis identifies PDE4D as an asthma-susceptibility gene. Am J Hum Genet. 2009 May; 84(5):581-93. View in: PubMed

In utero smoke exposure, glutathione S-transferase P1 haplotypes, and respiratory illness-related absence among schoolchildren. Pediatrics. 2009 May; 123(5):1344-51. View in: PubMed

Respiratory symptoms following wildfire smoke exposure: airway size as a susceptibility factor. Epidemiology. 2009 May; 20(3):451-9. View in: PubMed

Variation in the GST mu locus and tobacco smoke exposure as determinants of childhood lung function. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2009 Apr 1; 179(7):601-7. View in: PubMed

Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) P1, GSTM1, exercise, ozone and asthma incidence in school children. Thorax. 2009 Mar; 64(3):197-202. View in: PubMed

Roles of arginase variants, atopy, and ozone in childhood asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009 Mar; 123(3):596-602, 602. e1-8. View in: PubMed

Gene-environment interaction in genome-wide association studies. Am J Epidemiol. 2009 Jan 15; 169(2):219-26. View in: PubMed

Detecting gene-environment interactions in genome-wide association data. Genet Epidemiol. 2009; 33 Suppl 1:S68-73. View in: PubMed

Traffic-related air pollution and asthma onset in children: a prospective cohort study with individual exposure measurement. Environ Health Perspect. 2008 Oct; 116(10):1433-8. View in: PubMed

Effects of in utero and childhood tobacco smoke exposure and beta2-adrenergic receptor genotype on childhood asthma and wheezing. Pediatrics. 2008 Jul; 122(1):e107-14. View in: PubMed

Use of an electrostatic dust cloth for self-administered home allergen collection. Twin Res Hum Genet. 2008 Apr; 11(2):150-5. View in: PubMed

Interleukin-2, interleukin-12, and interferon-gamma levels and risk of young adult Hodgkin lymphoma. Blood. 2008 Apr 1; 111(7):3377-82. View in: PubMed

Glutathione S-transferase P1, maternal smoking, and asthma in children: a haplotype-based analysis. Environ Health Perspect. 2008 Mar; 116(3):409-15. View in: PubMed

Ozone, oxidant defense genes, and risk of asthma during adolescence. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2008 Feb 15; 177(4):388-95. View in: PubMed

Transforming growth factor- 1 C-509T polymorphism, oxidant stress, and early-onset childhood asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2007 Dec 15; 176(12):1192-9. View in: PubMed

Microsomal epoxide hydrolase, glutathione S-transferase P1, traffic and childhood asthma. Thorax. 2007 Dec; 62(12):1050-7. View in: PubMed

Relationship between air pollution, lung function and asthma in adolescents. Thorax. 2007 Nov; 62(11):957-63. View in: PubMed

Childhood sun exposure influences risk of multiple sclerosis in monozygotic twins. Neurology. 2007 Jul 24; 69(4):381-8. View in: PubMed

The ADRB3 Trp64Arg variant and obesity in African-American breast cancer cases. Int J Obes (Lond). 2007 Jul; 31(7):1110-8. View in: PubMed

Testing association between disease and multiple SNPs in a candidate gene. Genet Epidemiol. 2007 Jul; 31(5):383-95. View in: PubMed

Indoor time-microenvironment-activity patterns in seven regions of Europe. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2007 Mar; 17(2):170-81. View in: PubMed

Effect of exposure to traffic on lung development from 10 to 18 years of age: a cohort study. Lancet. 2007 Feb 17; 369(9561):571-7. View in: PubMed

Exploiting gene-environment interaction to detect genetic associations. Hum Hered. 2007; 63(2):111-9. View in: PubMed

Health effects of the 2003 Southern California wildfires on children. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2006 Dec 1; 174(11):1221-8. View in: PubMed

Dog ownership enhances symptomatic responses to air pollution in children with asthma. Environ Health Perspect. 2006 Dec; 114(12):1910-5. View in: PubMed

Regular smoking and asthma incidence in adolescents. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2006 Nov 15; 174(10):1094-100. View in: PubMed

Air pollution and children--an unhealthy mix. N Engl J Med. 2006 Jul 6; 355(1):78-9. View in: PubMed

Differential twin concordance for multiple sclerosis by latitude of birthplace. Ann Neurol. 2006 Jul; 60(1):56-64. View in: PubMed

Associations of tumor necrosis factor G-308A with childhood asthma and wheezing. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2006 May 1; 173(9):970-6. View in: PubMed

A testing framework for identifying susceptibility genes in the presence of epistasis. Am J Hum Genet. 2006 Jan; 78(1):15-27. View in: PubMed

TNF-308 modifies the effect of second-hand smoke on respiratory illness-related school absences. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2005 Dec 15; 172(12):1563-8. View in: PubMed

Childhood asthma and exposure to traffic and nitrogen dioxide. Epidemiology. 2005 Nov; 16(6):737-43. View in: PubMed

Testing association and linkage using affected-sib-parent study designs. Genet Epidemiol. 2005 Nov; 29(3):225-33. View in: PubMed

Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and childhood asthma. Hum Genet. 2005 Sep; 117(5):476-84. View in: PubMed

Identifying susceptibility genes by using joint tests of association and linkage and accounting for epistasis. BMC Genet. 2005; 6 Suppl 1:S147. View in: PubMed

SNPs, haplotypes, and model selection in a candidate gene region: the SIMPle analysis for multilocus data. Genet Epidemiol. 2004 Dec; 27(4):429-41. View in: PubMed

Effects of ambient air pollutants on asthma medication use and wheezing among fourth-grade school children from 12 Southern California communities enrolled in The Children's Health Study. Arch Environ Health. 2004 Oct; 59(10):505-14. View in: PubMed

The effect of air pollution on lung development from 10 to 18 years of age. N Engl J Med. 2004 Sep 9; 351(11):1057-67. View in: PubMed

IL-6 levels and genotype are associated with risk of young adult Hodgkin lymphoma. Blood. 2004 Apr 15; 103(8):3216-21. View in: PubMed

Polymorphism in the androgen receptor and mammographic density in women taking and not taking estrogen and progestin therapy. Cancer Res. 2004 Feb 15; 64(4):1237-41. View in: PubMed

Does mammographic density reflect ethnic differences in breast cancer incidence rates? Am J Epidemiol. Does mammographic density reflect ethnic differences in breast cancer incidence rates? Am J Epidemiol. 2004 Jan 15; 159(2):140-7. View in: PubMed

Candidate gene association analysis for a quantitative trait, using parent-offspring trios. Genet Epidemiol. 2003 Dec; 25(4):327-38. View in: PubMed

Prospective study of air pollution and bronchitic symptoms in children with asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2003 Oct 1; 168(7):790-7. View in: PubMed

Children's lung function and antioxidant vitamin, fruit, juice, and vegetable intake. Am J Epidemiol. 2003 Sep 15; 158(6):576-84. View in: PubMed

Obesity and the risk of newly diagnosed asthma in school-age children. Am J Epidemiol. 2003 Sep 1; 158(5):406-15. View in: PubMed

Environmental tobacco smoke and absenteeism related to respiratory illness in schoolchildren. Am J Epidemiol. 2003 May 15; 157(10):861-9. View in: PubMed

Longitudinal data analysis in pedigree studies. Genet Epidemiol. 2003; 25 Suppl 1:S18-28. View in: PubMed

Multiple imputation methods for longitudinal blood pressure measurements from the Framingham Heart Study. BMC Genet. 2003; 4 Suppl 1:S43. View in: PubMed

Segregation and linkage analysis for longitudinal measurements of a quantitative trait. BMC Genet. 2003; 4 Suppl 1:S21. View in: PubMed

Effects of glutathione-S-transferase M1, T1, and P1 on childhood lung function growth. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002 Sep 1; 166(5):710-6. View in: PubMed

Effects of glutathione S-transferase M1, maternal smoking during pregnancy, and environmental tobacco smoke on asthma and wheezing in children. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002 Aug 15; 166(4):457-63. View in: PubMed

Impact of respiratory illness on expiratory flow rates in normal, asthmatic, and allergic children. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2002 Aug; 34(2):112-21. View in: PubMed

Effects of glutathione S-transferase P1, M1, and T1 on acute respiratory illness in school children. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002 Aug 1; 166(3):346-51. View in: PubMed

Association between air pollution and lung function growth in southern California children: results from a second cohort. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002 Jul 1; 166(1):76-84. View in: PubMed

Indoor risk factors for asthma in a prospective study of adolescents. Epidemiology. 2002 May; 13(3):288-95. View in: PubMed

Sample size requirements for association studies of gene-gene interaction. Am J Epidemiol. 2002 Mar 1; 155(5):478-84. View in: PubMed

Asthma in exercising children exposed to ozone: a cohort study. Lancet. 2002 Feb 2; 359(9304):386-91. View in: PubMed

Sample size requirements for matched case-control studies of gene-environment interaction. Stat Med. 2002 Jan 15; 21(1):35-50. View in: PubMed

Respiratory effects of relocating to areas of differing air pollution levels. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2001 Dec 1; 164(11):2067-72. View in: PubMed

Combined linkage and association analysis in pedigrees. Genet Epidemiol. 2001; 21 Suppl 1:S358-63. View in: PubMed

Gene-environment interaction and affected sib pair linkage analysis. Hum Hered. 2001; 52(1):34-46. View in: PubMed

The role of interacting determinants in the localization of genes. Adv Genet. 2001; 42:393-412. View in: PubMed

The effects of ambient air pollution on school absenteeism due to respiratory illnesses. Epidemiology. 2001 Jan; 12(1):43-54. View in: PubMed

Association tests in nuclear families. Hum Hered. 2001; 52(2):66-76. View in: PubMed

Should we consider gene x environment interaction in the hunt for quantitative trait loci? Genet Epidemiol. Should we consider gene x environment interaction in the hunt for quantitative trait loci? Genet Epidemiol. 2001; 21 Suppl 1:S831-6. View in: PubMed

Effects of in utero and environmental tobacco smoke exposure on lung function in boys and girls with and without asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2000 Dec; 162(6):2097-104. View in: PubMed

Sex-specific effects of asthma on pulmonary function in children. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2000 Nov; 162(5):1723-30. View in: PubMed

Association between air pollution and lung function growth in southern California children. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2000 Oct; 162(4 Pt 1):1383-90. View in: PubMed

Maternal smoking during pregnancy, environmental tobacco smoke exposure and childhood lung function. Thorax. 2000 Apr; 55(4):271-6. View in: PubMed

The role of restricted motility in determining outcomes for vertical strabismus surgery in Graves' ophthalmology. Ophthalmology. 2000 Mar; 107(3):545-9. View in: PubMed

Evidence for age-specific genetic relative risks in lung cancer. Am J Epidemiol. 2000 Jan 1; 151(1):41-9. View in: PubMed

Air pollution and bronchitic symptoms in Southern California children with asthma. Environ Health Perspect. 1999 Sep; 107(9):757-60. View in: PubMed

Asymptotic bias and efficiency in case-control studies of candidate genes and gene-environment interactions: basic family designs. Am J Epidemiol. 1999 Apr 15; 149(8):693-705. View in: PubMed

Genome-wide screen for systemic lupus erythematosus susceptibility genes in multiplex families. Hum Mol Genet. 1999 Apr; 8(4):639-44. View in: PubMed

A study of twelve Southern California communities with differing levels and types of air pollution. II. Effects on pulmonary function. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1999 Mar; 159(3):768-75. View in: PubMed

A study of twelve Southern California communities with differing levels and types of air pollution. I. Prevalence of respiratory morbidity. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1999 Mar; 159(3):760-7. View in: PubMed

Association tests using unaffected-sibling versus pseudo-sibling controls. Genet Epidemiol. 1999; 17 Suppl 1:S731-6. View in: PubMed

Family-based association studies. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr. 1999; (26):31-7. View in: PubMed

A generalized estimating equations approach to linkage analysis in sibships in relation to multiple markers and exposure factors. Genet Epidemiol. 1999; 17 Suppl 1:S737-42. View in: PubMed

Study-design issues in the development of the University of Southern California Consortium's Colorectal Cancer Family Registry. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr. 1999; (26):89-93. View in: PubMed

A joint test of linkage and gene x environment interaction, with affected sib pairs. Genet Epidemiol. 1999; 17 Suppl 1:S563-8. View in: PubMed

Synergistic effect between IL-10 and bcl-2 genotypes in determining susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum. 1998 Apr; 41(4):596-602. View in: PubMed

Detection of gene-environment interactions in joint segregation and linkage analysis. Am J Hum Genet. 1997 Nov; 61(5):1189-99. View in: PubMed

Analysis of gene-smoking interaction in lung cancer. Genet Epidemiol. 1997; 14(2):199-214. View in: PubMed

Joint segregation and linkage analysis of a quantitative trait compared to separate analyses. Genet Epidemiol. 1997; 14(6):993-8. View in: PubMed

Genetic epidemiologic analysis of quantitative phenotypes using Gibbs sampling. Genet Epidemiol. 1995; 12(6):753-8. View in: PubMed

Censored survival models for genetic epidemiology: a Gibbs sampling approach. Genet Epidemiol. 1994; 11(2):171-88. View in: PubMed

A bivariate genetic analysis of HDL- and LDL-cholesterol incorporating measured covariates: a Gibbs sampling application. Genet Epidemiol. 1993; 10(6):623-8. View in: PubMed

Combined segregation and linkage analysis of late-onset Alzheimer's disease in Duke families using Gibbs sampling. Genet Epidemiol. 1993; 10(6):489-94. View in: PubMed

Sample size calculations for ophthalmologic studies. Arch Ophthalmol. 1992 May; 110(5):690-2. View in: PubMed

Computer-assisted study of diurnal variation in corneal topography after penetrating keratoplasty. Ophthalmic Surg. 1992 Jan; 23(1):10-6. View in: PubMed

Pituitary tumor volume as a predictor of postoperative visual field recovery. Quantitative analysis using automated static perimetry and computed tomography morphometry. J Clin Neuroophthalmol. 1991 Dec; 11(4):280-3. View in: PubMed

Pars plana vitrectomy for acute retinal detachment in penetrating ocular injuries. Arch Ophthalmol. 1990 Dec; 108(12):1724-8. View in: PubMed

Clearance rate of macrophages from the vitreous in rabbits. Curr Eye Res. 1990 Jul; 9(7):683-6. View in: PubMed

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