Keck School Faculty

Jae U Jung, PhD
Jae U Jung, PhD
Distinguished Professor and Chair, Molecular Microbiology and Immunology;Fletcher Jones Foundation Chair in Molecular Microbiology and Immunology
Molecular Microbiology and Immunology
HMR 401 2011 Zonal Avenue Health Sciences Campus Los Angeles
My laboratory is conducting different areas of research:

Host and Virus Standoff: Co-existence of viruses with their hosts requires a balance between host immune responses and their evasion by viruses. To deal with the sophisticated host immune system, viruses have evolved a myriad of immune evasion mechanisms to avoid elimination by the host's immune response. Herpesvirus: Host immune responses, including cytotoxic T lymphocytes and Natural killer cells, play essential roles in the elimination of virus-infected cells. Additionally, interferon and lymphotoxin and their receptor pathways are critical to the early viral infection, ultimately kick-starting the innate and adaptive immune responses of the host defense. Finally, the host carries various intracellular restriction mechanisms to thwart the spread of pathogens. Gifted with large genetic capacity, herpesviruses encode a wider array of viral immune modulators to avoid these host innate and adaptive immune responses. Understanding herpesvirus-mediated immune evasion tactics is the primary goal of this avenue.

Influenza Virus: The second avenue of this section is focused primarily on interferon (IFN)-mediated anti-virus immunity. Upon viral infection, the major defense mounted by the host immune system is activation of the IFN-mediated anti-viral innate immune pathway. In order to complete their life cycle, viruses that are obligatory intracellular parasites must modulate host IFN-mediated immune response. We study how the host recognizes viral infection with a specific focus on the RIG-I, TRIMs and IRF genes, and how influenza virus escapes host IFN-mediated anti-viral response with a specific focus on the Influenza virus NS1 gene. Genetically altered mice are used to demonstrate the in vivo roles of host and viral IFN regulatory genes.

Virus-Induced Cancer: This section is focused on understanding the molecular mechanisms of lymphoproliferative diseases induced by the gamma-2 herpesviruses and on developing animal models for human diseases. The gamma 2 herpesviruses include murine herpesvirus 68 (MHV68), herpesvirus saimiri (HVS), and Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV). KSHV is consistently associated with Kaposi's sarcoma, which is a multifocal vascular tumor of mixed cellular composition and is the most common tumor in patients with AIDS. Infection of New World primates with HVS results in rapidly progressing malignant T cell lymphomas. Finally, MHV68 provides a small animal model to study viral persistent infection. Biochemical and immunological analyses of individual viral genes in cell culture and experimental infection of mouse or primate with recombinant herpesviruses are used to define their roles in the onset of disease.

Programmed Cell Death (PCD): Apoptosis has been a primary PCD mechanism to respond viral infection by participating in its own death. Autophagy (Greek, "to eat oneself") is a new, emerging cellular pathway in which subcellular membranes undergo dynamic morphological changes that lead to the degradation of cellular proteins, cytoplasmic organelles, and invading pathogens. Thus, apoptotic and autophagic PCDs are important innate safeguard mechanisms to protect the organism against harmful microbes and unwanted cancerous cells. Viruses, in turn, have evolved elaborate mechanisms to subvert apoptotic and autophagic processes. This avenue is to understand how host initiates apoptosis and autophagy responses upon viral infection and how virus escapes host intracellular PCD-mediated innate immune controls to establish persistent infection and pathogenesis.

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) and Prostate Cancer: We utilize genetically engineered mouse models and chemical inhibitors to investigate the molecular details of ALL and prostate cancer and to develop therapeutic strategies against these cancers.

Ferret animal model of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome phlebovirus for human lethal infection and pathogenesis Nat Microbiol. 2019 Mar; 4(3):438-446. . View in PubMed

Efficiencies and kinetics of infection in different cell types/lines by African and Asian strains of Zika virus J Med Virol. 2019 Feb; 91(2):179-189. . View in PubMed

FoxO1 Suppresses Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Lytic Replication and Controls Viral Latency J Virol. 2019 Feb 01; 93(3). . View in PubMed

Ferret animal model of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome phlebovirus for human lethal infection and pathogenesis Nat Microbiol. 2018 Dec 10. . View in PubMed

Development of Thermostable Lyophilized Sabin Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine MBio. 2018 Nov 27; 9(6). . View in PubMed

FoxO1 Suppresses Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Lytic Replication and Controls Viral Latency J Virol. 2018 Nov 07. . View in PubMed

Efficiencies and kinetics of infection in different cell types/lines by African and Asian strains of Zika virus (ZIKV) J Med Virol. 2018 Sep 07. . View in PubMed

Correction: FAS-associated factor-1 positively regulates type I interferon response to RNA virus infection by targeting NLRX1 PLoS Pathog. 2018 Sep; 14(9):e1007302. . View in PubMed

Bacterial Protein Reshapes Host Defense toward Antiviral Responses Mol Cell. 2018 Aug 16; 71(4):483-484. . View in PubMed

Autophagy during viral infection - a double-edged sword Nat Rev Microbiol. 2018 Jun; 16(6):341-354. . View in PubMed

A Talented Duo: IFIT1 and IFIT3 Patrol Viral RNA Caps Immunity. 2018 Mar 20; 48(3):474-476. . View in PubMed

Deregulation of HDAC5 by Viral Interferon Regulatory Factor 3 Plays an Essential Role in Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus-Induced Lymphangiogenesis MBio. 2018 Jan 16; 9(1). . View in PubMed

Correction: FAS-associated factor-1 positively regulates type I interferon response to RNA virus infection by targeting NLRX1 PLoS Pathog. 2018 09; 14(9):e1007302. . View in PubMed

A Talented Duo: IFIT1 and IFIT3 Patrol Viral RNA Caps Immunity. 2018 03 20; 48(3):474-476. . View in PubMed

Deregulation of HDAC5 by Viral Interferon Regulatory Factor 3 Plays an Essential Role in Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus-Induced Lymphangiogenesis MBio. 2018 01 16; 9(1). . View in PubMed

Development of Thermostable Lyophilized Sabin Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine MBio. 2018 11 27; 9(6). . View in PubMed

Activation of RIG-I-Mediated Antiviral Signaling Triggers Autophagy Through the MAVS-TRAF6-Beclin-1 Signaling Axis Front Immunol. 2018; 9:2096. . View in PubMed

Asian Zika virus strains target CD14+ blood monocytes and induce M2-skewed immunosuppression during pregnancy Nat Microbiol. 2017 Nov; 2(11):1558-1570. . View in PubMed

Chloroquine, a FDA-approved Drug, Prevents Zika Virus Infection and its Associated Congenital Microcephaly in Mice EBioMedicine. 2017 Oct; 24:189-194. . View in PubMed

Architecture of the type IV coupling protein complex of Legionella pneumophila Nat Microbiol. 2017 Jul 17; 2:17114. . View in PubMed

Double the Trouble When Herpesviruses Join Hands Cell Host Microbe. 2017 Jul 12; 22(1):5-7. . View in PubMed

Inhibition of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus by a peptide derived from vFLIP through its direct destabilization of viruses Sci Rep. 2017 Jul 07; 7(1):4875. . View in PubMed

FAS-associated factor-1 positively regulates type I interferon response to RNA virus infection by targeting NLRX1 PLoS Pathog. 2017 May; 13(5):e1006398. . View in PubMed

Hepatitis C virus has a genetically determined lymphotropism through co-receptor B72. Nat Commun. 2017 Jan 09; 8:13882. . View in PubMed

Inhibition of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus by a peptide derived from vFLIP through its direct destabilization of viruses Sci Rep. 2017 07 07; 7(1):4875. . View in PubMed

MBio. 2017 08 15; 8(4). . View in PubMed

Hepatitis C virus has a genetically determined lymphotropism through co-receptor B72. Nat Commun. 2017 01 09; 8:13882. . View in PubMed

CD95 Signaling Inhibits B Cell Receptor-Mediated Gammaherpesvirus Replication in Apoptosis-Resistant B Lymphoma Cells J Virol. 2016 Nov 01; 90(21):9782-9796. . View in PubMed

Infection-specific phosphorylation of glutamyl-prolyl tRNA synthetase induces antiviral immunity Nat Immunol. 2016 Nov; 17(11):1252-1262. . View in PubMed

An Oncogenic Virus Promotes Cell Survival and Cellular Transformation by Suppressing Glycolysis PLoS Pathog. 2016 May; 12(5):e1005648. . View in PubMed

HDAC6 regulates cellular viral RNA sensing by deacetylation of RIG-I EMBO J. 2016 Feb 15; 35(4):429-42. . View in PubMed

Herpes simplex virus downregulation of secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor enhances human papillomavirus type 16 infection J Gen Virol. 2016 Feb; 97(2):422-34. . View in PubMed

Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells of Diverse Origins Support Persistent Infection with Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus and Manifest Distinct Angiogenic, Invasive, and Transforming Phenotypes MBio. 2016 Jan 26; 7(1):e02109-15. . View in PubMed

An Oncogenic Virus Promotes Cell Survival and Cellular Transformation by Suppressing Glycolysis PLoS Pathog. 2016 05; 12(5):e1005648. . View in PubMed

Genomic architecture of inflammatory bowel disease in five families with multiple affected individuals Hum Genome Var. 2016; 3:15060. . View in PubMed

Corrigendum: Signalling thresholds and negative B-cell selection in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia Nature. 2016 06 02; 534(7605):138. . View in PubMed

Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (3rd edition) Autophagy. 2016; 12(1):1-222. . View in PubMed

Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Viral Interferon Regulatory Factor 4 (vIRF4) Perturbs the G1-S Cell Cycle Progression via Deregulation of the cyclin D1 Gene J Virol. 2016 01 15; 90(2):1139-43. . View in PubMed

Akt Kinase-Mediated Checkpoint of cGAS DNA Sensing Pathway Cell Rep. 2015 Oct 13; 13(2):440-9. . View in PubMed

Immune control of oncogenic? -herpesviruses. Curr Opin Virol. 2015 Oct; 14:79-86.. View in PubMed

Association of Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus ORF31 with ORF34 and ORF24 Is Critical for Late Gene Expression J Virol. 2015 Jun; 89(11):6148-54. . View in PubMed

Identification of the Essential Role of Viral Bcl-2 for Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Lytic Replication J Virol. 2015 May; 89(10):5308-17. . View in PubMed

Herpesviral G protein-coupled receptors activate NFAT to induce tumor formation via inhibiting the SERCA calcium ATPase PLoS Pathog. 2015 Mar; 11(3):e1004768. . View in PubMed

Fluorescent tagging and cellular distribution of the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus ORF45 tegument protein J Virol. 2014 Nov; 88(21):12839-52. . View in PubMed

Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus ORF18 and ORF30 are essential for late gene expression during lytic replication J Virol. 2014 Oct; 88(19):11369-82. . View in PubMed

Interplay between Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and the innate immune system Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2014 Oct; 25(5):597-609. . View in PubMed

Exploitation of the complement system by oncogenic Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus for cell survival and persistent infection PLoS Pathog. 2014 Sep; 10(9):e1004412. . View in PubMed

Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus K3 and K5 ubiquitin E3 ligases have stage-specific immune evasion roles during lytic replication J Virol. 2014 Aug; 88(16):9335-49. . View in PubMed

Autophagy side of MB21D1/cGAS DNA sensor Autophagy. 2014 Jun; 10(6):1146-7. . View in PubMed

Crosstalk between the cGAS DNA sensor and Beclin-1 autophagy protein shapes innate antimicrobial immune responses Cell Host Microbe. 2014 Feb 12; 15(2):228-38. . View in PubMed

Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus tegument protein ORF75 is essential for viral lytic replication and plays a critical role in the antagonization of ND10-instituted intrinsic immunity PLoS Pathog. 2014 Jan; 10(1):e1003863. . View in PubMed

c-FLIP-Short reduces type I interferon production and increases viremia with coxsackievirus B3 PLoS One. 2014; 9(5):e96156. . View in PubMed

Genomewide mapping and screening of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) 3' untranslated regions identify bicistronic and polycistronic viral transcripts as frequent targets of KSHV microRNAs J Virol. 2014 Jan; 88(1):377-92. . View in PubMed

Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus K7 modulates Rubicon-mediated inhibition of autophagosome maturation J Virol. 2013 Nov; 87(22):12499-503. . View in PubMed

IKK epsilon kinase is crucial for viral G protein-coupled receptor tumorigenesis Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Jul 02; 110(27):11139-44. . View in PubMed

Insights into chronic gamma-herpesvirus infections Curr Opin Virol. 2013 Jun; 3(3):225-6. . View in PubMed

Biphasic euchromatin-to-heterochromatin transition on the KSHV genome following de novo infection PLoS Pathog. 2013; 9(12):e1003813. . View in PubMed

Dual short upstream open reading frames control translation of a herpesviral polycistronic mRNA PLoS Pathog. 2013 Jan; 9(1):e1003156. . View in PubMed

Beclin-1-interacting autophagy protein Atg14L targets the SNARE-associated protein Snapin to coordinate endocytic trafficking J Cell Sci. 2012 Oct 15; 125(Pt 20):4740-50. . View in PubMed

Construction and manipulation of a new Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus bacterial artificial chromosome clone J Virol. 2012 Sep; 86(18):9708-20. . View in PubMed

Cancer angiogenesis induced by Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus is mediated by EZH2 Cancer Res. 2012 Jul 15; 72(14):3582-92. . View in PubMed

A2G-Mx1 mice against influenza A virus. Antiviral Res. 2012 Apr; 94(1):98-102. . View in PubMed

Autophagy protein Rubicon mediates phagocytic NADPH oxidase activation in response to microbial infection or TLR stimulation Cell Host Microbe. 2012 Mar 15; 11(3):264-76. . View in PubMed

Control of B cell development by the histone H2A deubiquitinase MYSM1 Immunity. 2011 Dec 23; 35(6):883-96. . View in PubMed

Bilateral inhibition of HAUSP deubiquitinase by a viral interferon regulatory factor protein Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2011 Nov 06; 18(12):1336-44. . View in PubMed

Inhibition of RIG-I-mediated signaling by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-encoded deubiquitinase ORF64 J Virol. 2011 Oct; 85(20):10899-904. . View in PubMed

Evidence that inhibition of BAX activation by BCL-2 involves its tight and preferential interaction with the BH3 domain of BAX Cell Res. 2011 Apr; 21(4):627-41. . View in PubMed

Gene therapeutic approach for inhibiting hepatitis C virus replication using a recombinant protein that controls interferon expression Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010 Dec; 54(12):5048-56. . View in PubMed

Immune evasion by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus Future Microbiol. 2010 Sep; 5(9):1349-65. . View in PubMed

Epigenetic analysis of KSHV latent and lytic genomes PLoS Pathog. 2010 Jul 22; 6(7):e1001013. . View in PubMed

Induction, regulation, and biologic function of Axl receptor tyrosine kinase in Kaposi sarcoma Blood. 2010 Jul 15; 116(2):297-305. . View in PubMed

Autophagy genes as tumor suppressors Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2010 Apr; 22(2):226-33. . View in PubMed

Hyperdopaminergic tone erodes prefrontal long-term potential via a D2 receptor-operated protein phosphatase gate J Neurosci. 2009 Nov 11; 29(45):14086-99. . View in PubMed

FLIP-mediated autophagy regulation in cell death control Nat Cell Biol. 2009 Nov; 11(11):1355-62. . View in PubMed

Influenza A virus NS1 targets the ubiquitin ligase TRIM25 to evade recognition by the host viral RNA sensor RIG-I Cell Host Microbe. 2009 May 08; 5(5):439-49. . View in PubMed

Cytosolic viral sensor RIG-I is a 5'-triphosphate-dependent translocase on double-stranded RNA Science. 2009 Feb 20; 323(5917):1070-4. . View in PubMed

Arginine deiminase as a novel therapy for prostate cancer induces autophagy and caspase-independent apoptosis Cancer Res. 2009 Jan 15; 69(2):700-8. . View in PubMed

Epstein-Barr virus LF2: an antagonist to type I interferon J Virol. 2009 Jan; 83(2):1140-6. . View in PubMed

Immune evasion in Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus associated oncogenesis Semin Cancer Biol. 2008 Dec; 18(6):423-36. . View in PubMed

Beyond autophagy: the role of UVRAG in membrane trafficking Autophagy. 2008 Aug; 4(6):817-20. . View in PubMed

Beclin1-binding UVRAG targets the class C Vps complex to coordinate autophagosome maturation and endocytic trafficking Nat Cell Biol. 2008 Jul; 10(7):776-87. . View in PubMed

An insight into the mechanistic role of Beclin 1 and its inhibition by prosurvival Bcl-2 family proteins Autophagy. 2008 May; 4(4):519-20. . View in PubMed

Downregulation of autophagy by herpesvirus Bcl-2 homologs Autophagy. 2008 Apr; 4(3):268-72. . View in PubMed

Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus viral IFN regulatory factor 3 stabilizes hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha to induce vascular endothelial growth factor expression Cancer Res. 2008 Mar 15; 68(6):1751-9. . View in PubMed

Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy in higher eukaryotes Autophagy. 2008 Feb; 4(2):151-75. . View in PubMed

A novel inhibitory mechanism of mitochondrion-dependent apoptosis by a herpesviral protein PLoS Pathog. 2007 Dec; 3(12):e174. . View in PubMed

Bif-1 interacts with Beclin 1 through UVRAG and regulates autophagy and tumorigenesis Nat Cell Biol. 2007 Oct; 9(10):1142-51. . View in PubMed

Inhibition of interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF7)-mediated interferon signal transduction by the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus viral IRF homolog vIRF3 J Virol. 2007 Aug; 81(15):8282-92. . View in PubMed

Herpesvirus saimiri STP-A oncoprotein utilizes Src family protein tyrosine kinase and tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factors to elicit cellular signal transduction J Virol. 2007 Mar; 81(6):2663-74. . View in PubMed

Activation of non-canonical NF-kappaB pathway mediated by STP-A11, an oncoprotein of Herpesvirus saimiri Virology. 2007 Mar 01; 359(1):37-45. . View in PubMed

Downregulation of gamma interferon receptor 1 by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus K3 and K5 J Virol. 2007 Mar; 81(5):2117-27. . View in PubMed

Autophagic and tumour suppressor activity of a novel Beclin1-binding protein UVRAG Nat Cell Biol. 2006 Jul; 8(7):688-99. . View in PubMed

Deregulation of DNA damage signal transduction by herpesvirus latency-associated M2 J Virol. 2006 Jun; 80(12):5862-74. . View in PubMed

Inhibition of the ATM/p53 signal transduction pathway by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus interferon regulatory factor 1 J Virol. 2006 Mar; 80(5):2257-66. . View in PubMed

Characterization of the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus K1 signalosome J Virol. 2005 Oct; 79(19):12173-84. . View in PubMed

Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus K-bZIP represses gene transcription via SUMO modification J Virol. 2005 Aug; 79(15):9912-25. . View in PubMed

Activation of CD21 and CD23 gene expression by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus RTA J Virol. 2005 Apr; 79(8):4651-63. . View in PubMed

Inhibition of interferon-mediated antiviral activity by murine gammaherpesvirus 68 latency-associated M2 protein J Virol. 2004 Nov; 78(22):12416-27. . View in PubMed

Inhibition of T cell receptor signal transduction by tyrosine kinase-interacting protein of Herpesvirus saimiri J Exp Med. 2004 Sep 06; 200(5):681-7. . View in PubMed

Activation of Stat3 transcription factor by Herpesvirus saimiri STP-A oncoprotein J Virol. 2004 Jun; 78(12):6489-97. . View in PubMed

Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus K7 protein targets a ubiquitin-like/ubiquitin-associated domain-containing protein to promote protein degradation Mol Cell Biol. 2004 May; 24(9):3938-48. . View in PubMed

'Complementing' viral infection: mechanisms for evading innate immunity Trends Microbiol. 2003 Oct; 11(10):449-52. . View in PubMed

Distinct roles of cellular Lck and p80 proteins in herpesvirus saimiri Tip function on lipid rafts J Virol. 2003 Aug; 77(16):9041-51. . View in PubMed

Global changes in Kaposi's sarcoma-associated virus gene expression patterns following expression of a tetracycline-inducible Rta transactivator J Virol. 2003 Apr; 77(7):4205-20. . View in PubMed

Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus mitochondrial K7 protein targets a cellular calcium-modulating cyclophilin ligand to modulate intracellular calcium concentration and inhibit apoptosis J Virol. 2002 Nov; 76(22):11491-504. . View in PubMed

Herpesviral protein targets a cellular WD repeat endosomal protein to downregulate T lymphocyte receptor expression Immunity. 2002 Aug; 17(2):221-33. . View in PubMed

Identification of the bZIP and Rta homologues in the genome of rhesus monkey rhadinovirus Virology. 2002 Jul 05; 298(2):181-8. . View in PubMed

Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus K3 utilizes the ubiquitin-proteasome system in routing class major histocompatibility complexes to late endocytic compartments J Virol. 2002 Jun; 76(11):5522-31. . View in PubMed

Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus immune evasion strategies Front Biosci. 2002 May 01; 7:e185-203. . View in PubMed

Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus OX2 glycoprotein activates myeloid-lineage cells to induce inflammatory cytokine production J Virol. 2002 May; 76(10):4688-98. . View in PubMed

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