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Tracy C. Grikscheit, MD
Associate Professor of Surgery
CHL Mail Stop 72 Off Campus Los Angeles
+1 323 361 5901


Dr. Grikscheit is a practicing pediatric surgeon and scientist with a laboratory focused on regenerative medicine and tissue engineering at in The Saban Research Institute at Children's Hospital Los Angeles. In the hospital, she cares for children who are born prematurely, and therefore are at increased risk for multiple medical conditions that may lead to intestinal lack or loss. One of these conditions is necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), a potentially life-threatening intestinal problem. For the most severe cases of NEC, the only solution is surgical removal of the small intestine. However, this option leaves the baby dependent on intravenous feeding and the child is also at risk for liver damage from subsequent intravenous nutrition. Another option is small bowel transplantation, but graft and patient survival rates are still too low.

Dr. Grikscheit, a member of The Saban Research Institute's Developmental Biology and Regenerative Medicine program, envisions a better solution. The small intestine is an exquisitely regenerative organ. It is an elegant model to better understand organ-specific stem cells and the regenerative cells can be harnessed to make new gastrointestinal tissue for eventual clinical applications. Understanding how to generate tissue-engineered intestines, whether esophagus, stomach, small intestine, or colon, may also inform us how to expand the list of organs that can be tissue-engineered.


Corrigendum to "Inhibition of Fgf signaling in short bowel syndrome increases weight loss and epithelial proliferation. " [surgery volume 161, number 3 (2017) 694-703]. Surgery. 2018 Feb 13. View in: PubMed

Marked stem/progenitor cell expansion occurs early after murine ileostomy: a new model. J Surg Res. 2017 Dec; 220:182-196. View in: PubMed

Tissue Engineering Functional Gastrointestinal Regions: The Importance of Stem and Progenitor Cells. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2017 Oct 03; 7(10). View in: PubMed

Neural Crest Cell Implantation Restores Enteric Nervous System Function and Alters the Gastrointestinal Transcriptome in Human Tissue-Engineered Small Intestine. Stem Cell Reports. 2017 Sep 12; 9(3):883-896. View in: PubMed

Fibroblast Growth Factors in the Gastrointestinal Tract: Twists and Turns. Dev Dyn. 2017 04; 246(4):344-352. View in: PubMed

Intestinal adaptation in proximal and distal segments: Two epithelial responses diverge after intestinal separation. Surgery. 2017 04; 161(4):1016-1027. View in: PubMed

Inhibition of Fgf signaling in short bowel syndrome increases weight loss and epithelial proliferation. Surgery. 2017 03; 161(3):694-703. View in: PubMed

Functional Human and Murine Tissue-Engineered Liver Is Generated from Adult Stem/Progenitor Cells. Stem Cells Transl Med. 2017 Jan; 6(1):238-248. View in: PubMed

Short bowel syndrome results in increased gene expression associated with proliferation, inflammation, bile acid synthesis and immune system activation: RNA sequencing a zebrafish SBS model. BMC Genomics. 2017 01 25; 18(1):23. View in: PubMed

Created of Warm Blood and Nerves: Restoring an Enteric Nervous System in Organoids. Cell Stem Cell. 2017 01 05; 20(1):5-7. View in: PubMed

Deriving human ENS lineages for cell therapy and drug discovery in Hirschsprung disease. Nature. 2016 Mar 03; 531(7592):105-9. View in: PubMed

Fgf10 overexpression enhances the formation of tissue-engineered small intestine. J Tissue Eng Regen Med. 2016 Feb; 10(2):132-9. View in: PubMed

Establishing Proximal and Distal Regional Identities in Murine and Human Tissue-Engineered Lung and Trachea. Tissue Eng Part C Methods. 2016 11; 22(11):1049-1057. View in: PubMed

The pediatric intestinal mucosal microbiome remains altered after clinical resolution of inflammatory and ischemic disease. Surgery. 2016 08; 160(2):350-8. View in: PubMed

Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) Bioavailability Regulates Angiogenesis and Intestinal Stem and Progenitor Cell Proliferation during Postnatal Small Intestinal Development. PLoS One. 2016; 11(3):e0151396. View in: PubMed

Sequestration of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) Induces Late Restrictive Lung Disease. PLoS One. 2016; 11(2):e0148323. View in: PubMed

Human and Murine Tissue-Engineered Colon Exhibit Diverse Neuronal Subtypes and Can Be Populated by Enteric Nervous System Progenitor Cells When Donor Colon Is Aganglionic. Tissue Eng Part A. 2016 Jan; 22(1-2):53-64. View in: PubMed

Generation of tissue-engineered small intestine using embryonic stem cell-derived human intestinal organoids. Biol Open. 2015 Oct 12; 4(11):1462-72. View in: PubMed

Human and mouse tissue-engineered small intestine both demonstrate digestive and absorptive function. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2015 Apr 15; 308(8):G664-77. View in: PubMed

Fibroblast growth factor 10 alters the balance between goblet and Paneth cells in the adult mouse small intestine. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2015 Apr 15; 308(8):G678-90. View in: PubMed

Murine and human tissue-engineered esophagus form from sufficient stem/progenitor cells and do not require microdesigned biomaterials. Tissue Eng Part A. 2015 Mar; 21(5-6):906-15. View in: PubMed

Gremlin 1 identifies a skeletal stem cell with bone, cartilage, and reticular stromal potential. Cell. 2015 Jan 15; 160(1-2):269-84. View in: PubMed

Vitrification preserves murine and human donor cells for generation of tissue-engineered intestine. J Surg Res. 2014 Aug; 190(2):399-406. View in: PubMed

Stem cells and biopharmaceuticals: vital roles in the growth of tissue-engineered small intestine. Semin Pediatr Surg. 2014 Jun; 23(3):141-9. View in: PubMed

Enteric nervous system cell replacement therapy for Hirschsprung disease: beyond tissue-engineered intestine. Eur J Pediatr Surg. 2014 Jun; 24(3):214-8. View in: PubMed

Delayed family reunification of pediatric disaster survivors increases mortality and inpatient hospital costs: a simulation study. J Surg Res. 2013 Sep; 184(1):430-7. View in: PubMed

Tissue engineering: a promising therapeutic approach to necrotizing enterocolitis. Semin Pediatr Surg. 2013 May; 22(2):112-6. View in: PubMed

Tissue engineering the small intestine. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2013 Apr; 11(4):354-8. View in: PubMed

Human tissue-engineered small intestine forms from postnatal progenitor cells. J Pediatr Surg. 2013 Jan; 48(1):129-37. View in: PubMed

A "living bioreactor" for the production of tissue-engineered small intestine. Methods Mol Biol. 2013; 1001:299-309. View in: PubMed

Forearm skeletal muscle neuroblastoma in a child: a rare primary location. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2013 Jan; 35(1):61-3. View in: PubMed

Intraoperative hypercyanosis in a patient with pulmonary artery band: case report and review of the literature. J Clin Anesth. 2012 Dec; 24(8):652-5. View in: PubMed

Tissue engineering of the intestine in a murine model. J Vis Exp. 2012 Dec 01; (70):e4279. View in: PubMed

Human tissue-engineered colon forms from postnatal progenitor cells: an in vivo murine model. Regen Med. 2012 Nov; 7(6):807-18. View in: PubMed

FGF9-Pitx2-FGF10 signaling controls cecal formation in mice. Dev Biol. 2012 Sep 15; 369(2):340-8. View in: PubMed

Giant cystic meconium peritonitis presenting in a neonate with classic radiographic eggshell calcifications and treated with an elective surgical approach: a case report. J Med Case Rep. 2012 Aug 02; 6:229. View in: PubMed

Solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas: a single-institution 20-year series of pediatric patients. J Pediatr Surg. 2012 Jun; 47(6):1217-22. View in: PubMed

Tissue-engineering of the gastrointestinal tract. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2012 Jun; 24(3):365-70. View in: PubMed

Fibroblast growth factor 10-fibroblast growth factor receptor 2b mediated signaling is not required for adult glandular stomach homeostasis. PLoS One. 2012; 7(11):e49127. View in: PubMed

Mesenchymal-specific inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) attenuates growth in neonatal mice. J Surg Res. 2012 Jan; 172(1):40-7. View in: PubMed

Treatment of congenital pulmonary airway malformation induced hydrops fetalis via percutaneous sclerotherapy. Fetal Diagn Ther. 2012; 31(4):264-8. View in: PubMed

Tissue-engineered small intestine. Expert Rev Med Devices. 2011 Nov; 8(6):673-5. View in: PubMed

Murine tissue-engineered stomach demonstrates epithelial differentiation. J Surg Res. 2011 Nov; 171(1):6-14. View in: PubMed

Availability of a pediatric trauma center in a disaster surge decreases triage time of the pediatric surge population: a population kinetics model. Theor Biol Med Model. 2011 Oct 12; 8:38. View in: PubMed

VEGF optimizes the formation of tissue-engineered small intestine. Regen Med. 2011 Sep; 6(5):559-67. View in: PubMed

A multicellular approach forms a significant amount of tissue-engineered small intestine in the mouse. Tissue Eng Part A. 2011 Jul; 17(13-14):1841-50. View in: PubMed

FGF10 controls the patterning of the tracheal cartilage rings via Shh. Development. 2011 Jan; 138(2):273-82. View in: PubMed

Massive subcutaneous emphysema, pneumomediastinum, and pneumopericardium in children. J Pediatr Surg. 2010 Mar; 45(3):647-9. View in: PubMed

Tissue-engineered small intestine and stomach form from autologous tissue in a preclinical large animal model. J Surg Res. 2009 Oct; 156(2):205-12. View in: PubMed

Wnt5a knock-out mouse as a new model of anorectal malformation. J Surg Res. 2009 Oct; 156(2):278-82. View in: PubMed

Thoracoscopic repair of neonatal diaphragmatic hernia. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A. 2008 Dec; 18(6):875-80. View in: PubMed

Preservation of extracorporeal tissue in closing gastroschisis augments intestinal length. J Pediatr Surg. 2008 Dec; 43(12):2213-5. View in: PubMed

Necrotizing enterocolitis--bench to bedside: novel and emerging strategies. Semin Pediatr Surg. 2008 Nov; 17(4):255-65. View in: PubMed

Tissue-engineered spleen protects against overwhelming pneumococcal sepsis in a rodent model. J Surg Res. 2008 Oct; 149(2):214-8. View in: PubMed

Cost considerations and applicant characteristics for the Pediatric Surgery Match. J Pediatr Surg. 2005 Jan; 40(1):69-73; discussion 73-4. View in: PubMed

Tissue-engineered small intestine improves recovery after massive small bowel resection. Ann Surg. 2004 Nov; 240(5):748-54. View in: PubMed

Lymphangiogenesis in tissue-engineered small intestine. Transplantation. 2004 Apr 27; 77(8):1162-6. View in: PubMed

Effect of GLP-2 on mucosal morphology and SGLT1 expression in tissue-engineered neointestine. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2003 Dec; 285(6):G1345-52. View in: PubMed

Angiogenesis in tissue-engineered small intestine. Tissue Eng. 2003 Dec; 9(6):1255-61. View in: PubMed

Tissue-engineered stomach: a preliminary report of a versatile in vivo model with therapeutic potential. J Pediatr Surg. 2003 Sep; 38(9):1305-9. View in: PubMed

Tissue-engineered esophagus: experimental substitution by onlay patch or interposition. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2003 Aug; 126(2):537-44. View in: PubMed

Tissue engineering of the gastrointestinal tract for surgical replacement: a nutrition tool of the future? Proc Nutr Soc. Tissue engineering of the gastrointestinal tract for surgical replacement: a nutrition tool of the future? Proc Nutr Soc. 2003 Aug; 62(3):739-43. View in: PubMed

Tissue-engineered large intestine resembles native colon with appropriate in vitro physiology and architecture. Ann Surg. 2003 Jul; 238(1):35-41. View in: PubMed

Tissue-engineered small intestine: ontogeny of the immune system. Transplantation. 2002 Sep 15; 74(5):619-23. View in: PubMed

Tissue-engineered colon exhibits function in vivo. Surgery. 2002 Aug; 132(2):200-4. View in: PubMed

The history and current status of tissue engineering: The future of pediatric surgery. J Pediatr Surg. 2002 Mar; 37(3):277-88. View in: PubMed

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