Jeffrey I. Gold, MD

Professor of Anesthesiology, Pediatrics, and Psychiatry and the Behavioral Sciences (Clinical Scholar)

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Positions and Employment

1987 – 1988 Research Assistant – University of California, Santa Barbara, Department of Psychology
1989 – 1990 Director – Kindergarten Intervention Program (KIP) Los Angeles School Mental Health Services
1990 – 1990 Research Assistant – University of California at Los Angeles, Department of Psychology, Autism Project (NIMH Program Grant)
1990 – 1991 Trainee – San Fernando Valley Child Guidance Clinic
1991 – 1993 Staff Research Associate – UCLA Neuropsychiatric Institute and Hospital, Veterans Administration Medical Center-Brentwood Division Schizophrenia and Substance Abuse Research (NIDA R01)
1993 – 1997 Clinical Research Assistant – Children’s Hospital & Research Center Oakland – Departments of Psychiatry and Hematology
1995 – 1996 Trainee – University of California at Davis – Counseling Center
1996 – 1997 Trainee – California School of Professional Psychology- Psychological Service Center
1999 – 2000 Project Director – Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Research Program-VA San Francisco Health Care System (NIH Program Grant)
2000 – 2001 Project Director – Cancer Pain Research Program-VA Palo Alto Health Care System (VA HRSD)
2002 – 2004 Clinical Assistant Professor, Department of Pediatrics, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California; Psychologist, USC/UAP Mental Health Services, Comfort and Pain Management Program, Anesthesiology Critical Care Medicine, Children’s Hospital Los Angeles
2004 – 2009 Assistant Professor of Anesthesiology and Pediatrics Keck School Medicine, University of Southern California, Departments of Pediatrics and Anesthesiology Critical Care Medicine, Children’s Hospital Los Angeles
2009 – Associate Professor of Anesthesiology and Pediatrics Keck School Medicine, University of Southern California, Departments of Pediatrics and Anesthesiology Critical Care Medicine, Children’s Hospital Los Angeles
2010 – Grant Reviewer for NIH Study Sections

Jeffrey I. Gold, PhD, is an associate professor in the Departments of Anesthesiology and Pediatrics at the Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California. Dr. Gold, a licensed clinical psychologist, is director of the Pediatric Pain Management Clinic within the comprehensive multidisciplinary Comfort, Pain Management and Palliative Care Program in the Department of Anesthesiology Critical Care Medicine. He also is the director of the Children’s Outcomes, Research, and Evaluation (C.O.R.E.) program, director of the Children’s Hospital – Yo San University Pediatric Acupuncture Program, and faculty with the pediatric psychology specialization within the USC University Center of Excellence in Developmental Disabilities Mental Health Services at Children’s Hospital Los Angeles. Dr. Gold has specialized in the assessment, treatment, and clinical investigation of acute and chronic pain in children, adolescents, and adults with various chronic medical illnesses, such as sickle cell disease and chronic pain conditions.

Dr. Gold is a NIH-funded clinical researcher examining: 1. The neurobiological basis of virtual reality pain attenuation. 2. Neuropsychological dysfunction and neuroimaging abnormalities in neurologically intact patients with sickle cell disease. 3. Acute stress reactions in children following physical trauma (i.e., motor vehicle accidents), and preoperative anxiety and distress in children.

Biopsychosocial, neurodevelopmental, and neurobehavioral investigations of acute and chronic pain, chronic illness and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in medically ill children and adolescents. Investigating the role virtual reality (VR) for procedural distress (i.e., pain and anxiety) for children and adolescents. Dr. Gold is actively engaged in the evaluation and utility of complementary and alternative medicine (i.e., virtual reality, massage, acupuncture) for reducing pain, anxiety, psychological distress and increasing comfort and satisfaction in hospitalized children.


  • Exploring Relations Between Unique Patient Characteristics and Virtual Reality Immersion Level on Anxiety and Pain in Patients Undergoing Venipuncture: Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Control Trial J Med Internet Res. 2024 Jul 01; 26:e53196. . View in PubMed
  • Prehospitalization Trauma and Physiologic Factors Associated with the Presence of Post-traumatic Stress 3 Months After PICU Discharge J Intensive Care Med. 2024 Mar; 39(3):268-276. . View in PubMed
  • Children (Basel). 2023 Nov 01; 10(11). . View in PubMed
  • High rates of anxiety detected in mothers of children with inconclusive cystic fibrosis screening results J Cyst Fibros. 2023 May; 22(3):420-426. . View in PubMed
  • Heart Rate Variability biofeedback therapy for children and adolescents with chronic pain: A pilot study J Pediatr Nurs. 2022 Sep-Oct; 66:151-159. . View in PubMed
  • Yes, we CAM: Increasing physician communication about complementary and alternative medicine through electronic medical record prompts in a pediatric hospital Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2021 Nov; 45:101449. . View in PubMed
  • A Secondary Analysis of Integrated Pediatric Chronic Pain Services Related to Cost Savings J Clin Psychol Med Settings. 2021 06; 28(2):374-383. . View in PubMed
  • “Doc McStuffins: Doctor for a Day” Virtual Reality (DocVR) for Pediatric Preoperative Anxiety and Satisfaction: Pediatric Medical Technology Feasibility Study J Med Internet Res. 2021 04 19; 23(4):e25504. . View in PubMed
  • Admission Psychosocial Characteristics of Critically Ill Children and Acute Stress Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2021 02 01; 22(2):194-203. . View in PubMed
  • Effect of an Immersive Virtual Reality Intervention on Pain and Anxiety Associated With Peripheral Intravenous Catheter Placement in the Pediatric Setting: A Randomized Clinical Trial JAMA Netw Open. 2021 08 02; 4(8):e2122569. . View in PubMed
  • Leveraging Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality to Combat Chronic Pain in Youth: Position Paper From the Interdisciplinary Network on Virtual and Augmented Technologies for Pain Management J Med Internet Res. 2021 04 26; 23(4):e25916. . View in PubMed
  • A comprehensive examination of the immediate recovery of children following tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2020 Aug; 135:110106. . View in PubMed
  • The Role of Medical Specialization on Posttraumatic Symptoms in Pediatric Nurses J Pediatr Nurs. 2020 Jul – Aug; 53:22-28. . View in PubMed
  • Examining relations between neuropsychological and clinical epilepsy-specific factors with psychopathology and adaptive skills outcomes in youth with intractable epilepsy Epilepsy Behav. 2020 09; 110:107171. . View in PubMed
  • Socially-Assistive Robots Using Empathy to Reduce Pain and Distress during Peripheral IV Placement in Children Pain Res Manag. 2020; 2020:7935215. . View in PubMed
  • Children and their parents’ assessment of postoperative surgical pain: Agree or disagree? Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2019 Aug; 123:84-92.. View in PubMed
  • Socially Assistive Robots for Helping Pediatric Distress and Pain: A Review of Current Evidence and Recommendations for Future Research and Practice Clin J Pain. 2019 05; 35(5):451-458. . View in PubMed
  • The Effects of Family Functioning on the Development of Posttraumatic Stress in Children and Their Parents Following Admission to the PICU Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2019 04; 20(4):e208-e215. . View in PubMed
  • J Pediatr Nurs. 2018 May – Jun; 40:7-13. . View in PubMed
  • A Cost-Analysis of an Interdisciplinary Pediatric Chronic Pain Clinic J Pain. 2018 02; 19(2):158-165. . View in PubMed
  • J Pediatr Psychol. 2018 04 01; 43(3):266-275. . View in PubMed
  • Mindfulness for Novice Pediatric Nurses: Smartphone Application Versus Traditional Intervention J Pediatr Nurs. 2017 Sep – Oct; 36:205-212. . View in PubMed
  • Mental Health Screening Among Adolescents and Young Adults in the Emergency Department Pediatr Emerg Care. 2017 Jan; 33(1):5-9. . View in PubMed
  • Antidepressants for chronic non-cancer pain in children and adolescents Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 08 05; 8:CD012535. . View in PubMed
  • March of the Living, a Holocaust Educational Tour: An Assessment of Anxiety and Depression J Relig Health. 2016 Jun; 55(3):1000-1009. . View in PubMed
  • Health-related quality of life in mucopolysaccharidosis: looking beyond biomedical issues Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2016 08 26; 11(1):119. . View in PubMed
  • Rising to the challenge of preventing pediatric intensive care unit admissions J Crit Care. 2015 Dec; 30(6):1413-4. . View in PubMed
  • Pediatric Early Warning Score and unplanned readmission to the pediatric intensive care unit J Crit Care. 2015 Oct; 30(5):1090-5. . View in PubMed
  • Examining pediatric emergency home ventilation practices in home health nurses: Opportunities for improved care Pediatr Pulmonol. 2015 Jul; 50(7):691-7. . View in PubMed
  • Psychometric evaluation of the child PTSD symptom scale in Spanish and English Child Psychiatry Hum Dev. 2015 Jun; 46(3):438-44. . View in PubMed
  • Effects of acupuncture on pain and inflammation in pediatric emergency department patients with acute appendicitis: a pilot study J Altern Complement Med. 2015 May; 21(5):269-72. . View in PubMed
  • Satisfaction with care and decision making among parents/caregivers in the pediatric intensive care unit: a comparison between English-speaking whites and Latinos J Crit Care. 2015 Apr; 30(2):236-41. . View in PubMed
  • An on-the-job mindfulness-based intervention for pediatric ICU nurses: a pilot J Pediatr Nurs. 2015 Mar-Apr; 30(2):402-9. . View in PubMed
  • Pediatric novice nurses: examining compassion fatigue as a mediator between stress exposure and compassion satisfaction, burnout, and job satisfaction J Pediatr Nurs. 2015 Jan-Feb; 30(1):174-83. . View in PubMed
  • The effect of neighborhood and individual characteristics on pediatric critical illness J Community Health. 2014 Aug; 39(4):753-9. . View in PubMed
  • Neuroimaging abnormalities in adults with sickle cell anemia: associations with cognition Neurology. 2014 Mar 11; 82(10):835-41. . View in PubMed
  • Acute stress, depression, and anxiety symptoms among English and Spanish speaking children with recent trauma exposure J Clin Psychol Med Settings. 2014 Mar; 21(1):66-71. . View in PubMed
  • Group cohesion and organizational commitment: protective factors for nurse residents’ job satisfaction, compassion fatigue, compassion satisfaction, and burnout J Prof Nurs. 2014 Jan-Feb; 30(1):89-99. . View in PubMed
  • March of the living, a holocaust educational tour: effect on adolescent Jewish identity J Relig Health. 2013 Dec; 52(4):1402-14. . View in PubMed
  • Psychometric evaluation of a modified version of the family satisfaction in the ICU survey in parents/caregivers of critically ill children* Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2013 Oct; 14(8):e350-6. . View in PubMed
  • Mood and health-related quality of life among pediatric patients with heart failure Pediatr Cardiol. 2013 Feb; 34(2):431-7. . View in PubMed
  • Development and psychometric evaluation of child acute stress measures in Spanish and English J Trauma Stress. 2013 Feb; 26(1):19-27. . View in PubMed
  • Occult psychosocial impairment in a pediatric emergency department population Pediatr Emerg Care. 2012 Dec; 28(12):1334-7. . View in PubMed
  • Neurocognitive functioning in children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: a pilot study of positive airway pressure therapy J Pediatr Nurs. 2012 Dec; 27(6):607-13. . View in PubMed
  • Pica in children with sickle cell disease: two case reports J Pediatr Nurs. 2012 Dec; 27(6):e65-70. . View in PubMed
  • The relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder, mood states, functional status, and quality of life in oncology outpatients J Pain Symptom Manage. 2012 Oct; 44(4):520-31. . View in PubMed
  • Relations between anxiety sensitivity, somatization, and health-related quality of life in children with chronic pain J Pediatr Psychol. 2012 Aug; 37(7):808-16. . View in PubMed
  • Posttraumatic stress disorder in children and their parents following admission to the pediatric intensive care unit: a review Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2012 May; 13(3):338-47. . View in PubMed
  • The mediating effects of family functioning on psychosocial outcomes in healthy siblings of children with sickle cell disease Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2011 Dec 01; 57(6):1055-61. . View in PubMed
  • Posttraumatic stress symptoms following pregnancy complicated by hyperemesis gravidarum J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2011 Nov; 24(11):1307-11. . View in PubMed
  • Virtual reality and pain management: current trends and future directions Pain Manag. 2011 Mar; 1(2):147-157. . View in PubMed
  • Holocaust student tour: the impact on spirituality and health Isr J Psychiatry Relat Sci. 2011; 48(3):186-94. . View in PubMed
  • Revisiting the Sham: Is It all Smoke and Mirrors? Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2011; 2011:842767.. View in PubMed
  • State trait anxiety in the emergency department: an analysis of anticipatory and life stressors Pediatr Emerg Care. 2010 Dec; 26(12):897-901. . View in PubMed
  • Neuropsychological dysfunction and neuroimaging abnormalities in neurologically intact adults with sickle cell anemia JAMA. 2010 May 12; 303(18):1823-31. . View in PubMed
  • Touch and massage for medically fragile infants Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2009 Dec; 6(4):473-82. . View in PubMed
  • Pediatric acupuncture: a review of clinical research Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2009 Dec; 6(4):429-39. . View in PubMed
  • Pain, fatigue, and health-related quality of life in children and adolescents with chronic pain Clin J Pain. 2009 Jun; 25(5):407-12. . View in PubMed
  • Pediatric disaster preparedness in the medical setting: integrating mental health Am J Disaster Med. 2009 May-Jun; 4(3):137-46. . View in PubMed
  • Pediatric chronic pain and health-related quality of life J Pediatr Nurs. 2009 Apr; 24(2):141-50. . View in PubMed
  • The use of virtual reality for pain control: a review Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2009 Apr; 13(2):100-9. . View in PubMed
  • Psychosocial and behavioral outcomes in children with sickle cell disease and their healthy siblings J Behav Med. 2008 Dec; 31(6):506-16. . View in PubMed
  • Evidence-based assessment in pediatric psychology: family measures J Pediatr Psychol. 2008 Oct; 33(9):1046-61; discussion 1062-4. . View in PubMed
  • An expanded Transactional Stress and Coping Model for siblings of children with sickle cell disease: family functioning and sibling coping, self-efficacy and perceived social support Child Care Health Dev. 2008 Jul; 34(4):491-502. . View in PubMed
  • Detection and assessment of stroke in patients with sickle cell disease: neuropsychological functioning and magnetic resonance imaging Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2008 Jun; 25(5):409-21. . View in PubMed
  • The impact of unintentional pediatric trauma: a review of pain, acute stress, and posttraumatic stress J Pediatr Nurs. 2008 Apr; 23(2):81-91. . View in PubMed
  • Pediatric massage therapy: an overview for clinicians Pediatr Clin North Am. 2007 Dec; 54(6):1025-41; xii-xiii. . View in PubMed
  • Practitioner review: clinical applications of pediatric hypnosis J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2007 Aug; 48(8):744-54. . View in PubMed
  • The neurobiology of virtual reality pain attenuation Cyberpsychol Behav. 2007 Aug; 10(4):536-44. . View in PubMed
  • Pediatric guidelines Explore (NY). 2006 Sep-Oct; 2(5):386-7. . View in PubMed
  • Effectiveness of virtual reality for pediatric pain distraction during iv. placement. Cyberpsychol Behav. 2006 Apr; 9(2):207-12. . View in PubMed