Lee Ann Baxter-Lowe, PhD

Professor Of Clinical Pathology

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Dr Baxter-Lowe’s research involves characterizing HLA polymorphism and determining its relevance in transplantation and human disease. In recent years she has been investigating the role of HLA antibodies in transplantation of solid organs and hematopoietic stem cells. Her laboratory has supported numerous single and multicenter clinical trials in transplantation and has been a core laboratory for the NIH Immune Tolerance Network. Her research has been reported in more than 125 scientific publications.

Dr. Baxter-Lowe has also served as a clinical histocompatibility laboratory director and in this capacity has been involved in advancing histocompatibility testing and its clinical application. She has had a long-standing commitment to policy development and is currently serving as Chair of the Histocompatibility Committee of the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) and is the facilitator for the Histocompatibility Workgroup for the 2012 National Consensus Conference on Kidney Paired Donation (KPD). She has served as a member or chair of numerous national and international committees in this field.


  • HLA diversity in ethnic populations can affect detection of donor-specific antibodies by single antigen beads Front Immunol. 2023; 14:1287028. . View in PubMed
  • Next generation multiplexing for digital PCR using a novel melt-based hairpin probe design Front Genet. 2023; 14:1272964. . View in PubMed
  • Cell-free DNA as a solid-organ transplant biomarker: technologies and approaches Biomark Med. 2022 04; 16(5):401-415. . View in PubMed
  • Donor chimerism and immune reconstitution following haploidentical transplantation in sickle cell disease Front Immunol. 2022; 13:1055497. . View in PubMed
  • The changing landscape of HLA typing: Understanding how and when HLA typing data can be used with confidence from bench to bedside Hum Immunol. 2021 Jul; 82(7):466-477. . View in PubMed
  • Defining and characterizing HLA diversity Hum Immunol. 2021 07; 82(7):455-456. . View in PubMed
  • The discovery of the HLA-B*56:75 allele shows that HLA sequencing is important in all transplant settings HLA. 2021 05; 97(5):463-464. . View in PubMed
  • Growing evidence that 2-field high-resolution HLA typing is important for kidney transplantation Am J Transplant. 2020 12; 20(12):3277-3278. . View in PubMed
  • The clinical impact of donor-specific antibodies on antibody-mediated rejection and long-term prognosis after heart transplantation Curr Opin Organ Transplant. 2019 06; 24(3):245-251. . View in PubMed
  • Human leukocyte antigens antibodies after lung transplantation: Primary results of the HALT study Am J Transplant. 2018 09; 18(9):2285-2294. . View in PubMed
  • CPRA for allocation of kidneys in the US: More candidates =98% CPRA, lower positive crossmatch rates and improved transplant rates for sensitized patients Hum Immunol. 2016 May; 77(5):395-402. . View in PubMed
  • Impact of allele-level HLA matching on outcomes after myeloablative single unit umbilical cord blood transplantation for hematologic malignancy Blood. 2014 Jan 02; 123(1):133-40. . View in PubMed
  • Amino acid substitution at peptide-binding pockets of HLA class I molecules increases risk of severe acute GVHD and mortality Blood. 2013 Nov 21; 122(22):3651-8. . View in PubMed
  • Effect of HLA-matching recipients to donor noninherited maternal antigens on outcomes after mismatched umbilical cord blood transplantation for hematologic malignancy Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2012 Dec; 18(12):1890-6. . View in PubMed
  • Scoring HLA class I mismatches by HistoCheck does not predict clinical outcome in unrelated hematopoietic stem cell transplantation Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2012 May; 18(5):739-46. . View in PubMed
  • Kidney transplantation at UCSF: 8,300 transplants and onward Clin Transpl. 2010; 161-7. . View in PubMed
  • Advancement and clinical implications of HLA typing in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation Cancer Treat Res. 2009; 144:71-94. . View in PubMed
  • Results of the Cord Blood Transplantation Study (COBLT): clinical outcomes of unrelated donor umbilical cord blood transplantation in pediatric patients with hematologic malignancies Blood. 2008 Nov 15; 112(10):4318-27. . View in PubMed
  • High-resolution donor-recipient HLA matching contributes to the success of unrelated donor marrow transplantation Blood. 2007 Dec 15; 110(13):4576-83. . View in PubMed
  • A high degree of HLA disparity arises from limited allelic diversity: analysis of 1775 unrelated bone marrow transplant donor-recipient pairs Hum Immunol. 2007 Jan; 68(1):30-40. . View in PubMed
  • Impact of HLA class I and class II high-resolution matching on outcomes of unrelated donor bone marrow transplantation: HLA-C mismatching is associated with a strong adverse effect on transplantation outcome Blood. 2004 Oct 01; 104(7):1923-30. . View in PubMed