Steven T Walston, PhD

Assistant Professor Of Research Ophthalmology

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Steven Walston, PhD, is a retinal electrophysiologist and biomedical engineer specializing in the development and implementation of neural interface technologies. His research has focused on investigating electrical stimulation strategies to restore vision with retinal prostheses and on understanding neural effects of retinal degeneration. Additionally, his research has focused on the development of nanomaterial-based electrode technologies and their integration into flexible thin-film microelectrode arrays in efforts to further enhance the quality communication at the electrode-neural tissue interface.


  • Artificial Vision Symposium Travel Grant, 2015
  • William Hansen Sandberg Memorial Foundation Scholarship, 2015
  • NEI: NEI EY022931-S1, 2013-2016
  • NIH: NIH Intramural Research Training Award, 2009


  • Engineered Graphene Material Improves the Performance of Intraneural Peripheral Nerve Electrodes Adv Sci (Weinh). 2024 Jun 11; e2308689. . View in PubMed
  • Nanoporous graphene-based thin-film microelectrodes for in vivo high-resolution neural recording and stimulation Nat Nanotechnol. 2024 Jan 11. . View in PubMed
  • Calcium Imaging In Electrically Stimulated Flat-Mounted Retinas J Vis Exp. 2023 08 18; (198). . View in PubMed
  • Impact of Retinal Degeneration on Response of ON and OFF Cone Bipolar Cells to Electrical Stimulation IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng. 2023; 31:2424-2437. . View in PubMed
  • Direct measurement of bipolar cell responses to electrical stimulation in wholemount mouse retina J Neural Eng. 2018 08; 15(4):046003. . View in PubMed
  • GCaMP expression in retinal ganglion cells characterized using a low-cost fundus imaging system J Neural Eng. 2017 10; 14(5):056018. . View in PubMed
  • Separation of photoreceptor cell compartments in mouse retina for protein analysis Mol Neurodegener. 2017 04 11; 12(1):28. . View in PubMed
  • Method to remove photoreceptors from whole mount retina in vitro J Neurophysiol. 2017 11 01; 118(5):2763-2769. . View in PubMed
  • In vivo characterization of genetic expression of virus-transduced calcium indicators in retinal ganglion cells using a low-cost funduscope Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2016 Aug; 2016:1316-1319. . View in PubMed
  • Electrical Stimulation of the Retina to Produce Artificial Vision Annu Rev Vis Sci. 2016 10 14; 2:273-294. . View in PubMed
  • Patch clamp recordings of retinal bipolar cells in response to extracellular electrical stimulation in wholemount mouse retina Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2015; 2015:3363-6. . View in PubMed
  • Non-invasive assessment of tryptophan fluorescence and confocal microscopy provide information on skin barrier repair dynamics beyond TEWL Exp Dermatol. 2013 Jan; 22(1):18-23. . View in PubMed