Keck School Faculty

Todd Chang

Todd Chang

Associate Professor of Clinical Pediatrics and Medical Education (Educational Scholar)
CHL 4650 Sunset Blvd Off Campus Los Angeles

FaceBook / Oculus : VR for Good, 2016-2017

American Heart Association: Western States Grant-in-Aid, 2015-2017

National Board of Medical Examiners: Stemmler Fund, 2015-2017

RBaby Foundation: RBaby Foundation Grant, 2013-2014

University of Southern California: SC CTSI Research Pilot Grant, 2013-2014

University of Southern California: USC Zumberge Individual Research Award, 2012-2013

Optimizing Surgical Performance Using Preoperative Virtual Reality Planning: A Systematic Review World J Surg. 2023 May 19. . View in PubMed

Setting an Agenda: Results of a Consensus Process on Research Directions in Distance Simulation Simul Healthc. 2023 Apr 01; 18(2):100-107. . View in PubMed

Examining trust between supervisors and trainees in the pediatric emergency department AEM Educ Train. 2023 Apr; 7(2):e10857. . View in PubMed

Electrolyte abnormalities and stress dosing predict illness-related hospitalizations among infants and toddlers with congenital adrenal hyperplasia Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2023 04; 98(4):536-542. . View in PubMed

Impact of Race and Ethnicity on Emergency Medical Services Administration of Opioid Pain Medications for Injured Children J Emerg Med. 2023 01; 64(1):55-61. . View in PubMed

Mental Health Revisits at US Pediatric Emergency Departments JAMA Pediatr. 2023 02 01; 177(2):168-176. . View in PubMed

Enhancing cardiopulmonary resuscitation education through game-based augmented reality face filters Resuscitation. 2022 Oct 07; 180:108-110. . View in PubMed

Validation of a 3-Dimensional-Printed Infant Tibia for Intraosseous Needle Insertion Training Simul Healthc. 2022 Sep 23. . View in PubMed

The Effect of a Plastic Barrier Drape on Resuscitation Performance and Provider Contamination: A Randomized Controlled Simulation-Based Pilot Trial Simul Healthc. 2022 Aug 05. . View in PubMed

Inter-Rater Reliability and Agreement Among Mass-Casualty Incident Algorithms Using a Pediatric Trauma Dataset: A Pilot Study Prehosp Disaster Med. 2022 Jun; 37(3):306-313. . View in PubMed

Quantifying Simulated Contamination Deposition on Healthcare Providers Using Image Analysis Simul Healthc. 2022 May 12. . View in PubMed

Use of a validated asthma questionnaire to increase inhaled corticosteroid prescribing in the pediatric emergency department J Asthma. 2022 Feb; 59(2):378-385. . View in PubMed

The P2Network-Advancing Pediatric Emergency Care With Point-of-Care Ultrasound Pediatr Emerg Care. 2022 Feb 01; 38(2):e1014-e1018. . View in PubMed

Children with under-diagnosed asthma presenting to a pediatric emergency department J Asthma. 2022 07; 59(7):1353-1359. . View in PubMed

Characterizing preferred terms for geographically distant simulations: distance, remote and telesimulation Int J Healthc Simul. 2022; 1(3):55-65. . View in PubMed

Healthcare Provider Characteristics and Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Quality During Infant Resuscitation: A Simulation Study Simul Healthc. 2022 04 01; 17(2):88-95. . View in PubMed

Comparison of Outcome Tools Used to Test Mass-Casualty Algorithms in the Pediatric Population Prehosp Disaster Med. 2021 Dec; 36(6):719-723. . View in PubMed

Development and Considerations for Virtual Reality Simulations for Resuscitation Training and Stress Inoculation Simul Healthc. 2021 Dec 01; 16(6):e219-e226. . View in PubMed

Teaching Infant Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation to Caregivers in the Emergency Department Pediatr Emerg Care. 2021 Dec 01; 37(12):e1204-e1208. . View in PubMed

Impact of Environmental Noise Levels on Endotracheal Intubation Performance Among Pediatric Emergency Providers: A Simulation Study Pediatr Emerg Care. 2021 Dec 01; 37(12):e944-e949. . View in PubMed

Augmented Reality in Pediatric Septic Shock Simulation: Randomized Controlled Feasibility Trial JMIR Med Educ. 2021 Oct 06; 7(4):e29899. . View in PubMed

Healthcare Provider Stress and Virtual Reality Simulation: A Scoping Review Simul Healthc. 2021 Aug 01; 16(4):268-274. . View in PubMed

Pediatric emergency department shift experiences and moods: An exploratory sequential mixed-methods study AEM Educ Train. 2021 Jul; 5(3):e10572. . View in PubMed

Research environment and resources to support pediatric emergency medicine fellow research AEM Educ Train. 2021 Jul; 5(3):e10585. . View in PubMed

Use of Virtual Reality for Pediatric Cardiac Critical Care Simulation Cureus. 2021 Jun; 13(6):e15856. . View in PubMed

The assessment of a manikin-based low-dose, high-frequency cardiac resuscitation quality improvement program in early UK adopter hospitals Adv Simul (Lond). 2021 Apr 21; 6(1):14. . View in PubMed

The use of virtual reality and augmented reality to enhance cardio-pulmonary resuscitation: a scoping review Adv Simul (Lond). 2021 Apr 12; 6(1):11. . View in PubMed

Inhaled corticosteroid beliefs, complementary and alternative medicine in children presenting to the emergency department for asthma J Asthma. 2021 10; 58(10):1359-1366. . View in PubMed

The Pediatric Emergency Research Network (PERN): A decade of global research cooperation in paediatric emergency care Emerg Med Australas. 2021 10; 33(5):900-910. . View in PubMed

Parental preferences for survey mode of administration, interview versus self-administered, with an asthma management questionnaire J Asthma. 2021 05; 58(5):665-673. . View in PubMed

The Pediatric Emergency Research Network: A Decade of Global Research Cooperation in Pediatric Emergency Care Pediatr Emerg Care. 2021 07 01; 37(7):389-396. . View in PubMed

The effects of rudeness, experience, and perspective-taking on challenging premature closure after pediatric ICU physicians receive hand-off with the wrong diagnosis: a randomized controlled simulation trial Diagnosis (Berl). 2021 08 26; 8(3):358-367. . View in PubMed

The Pediatric Emergency Research Network: a decade old and growing Eur J Emerg Med. 2021 10 01; 28(5):341-343. . View in PubMed

Understanding Graduating Pediatric Emergency Medicine Fellow Priorities for Career Pathways and Faculty Recruitment for Academic or Community Emergency Departments AEM Educ Train. 2021 Jan; 5(1):12-18. . View in PubMed

Closing the gap: a call for a common blueprint for remote distance telesimulation BMJ Simul Technol Enhanc Learn. 2021; 7(4):185-187. . View in PubMed

Validation of a Modified Jefferson Scale of Empathy for Observers to Assess Trainees Acad Pediatr. 2021 Jan-Feb; 21(1):165-169. . View in PubMed

Attitudes and Opinions of Adolescent Females Regarding 2 Methods of Bladder Filling for Transabdominal Ultrasound: A Q-Sort Study Pediatr Emerg Care. 2020 Aug; 36(8):e460-e466. . View in PubMed

Saving Lives and Improving the Quality of Pediatric Resuscitation Across the World: A 1-Day Research Accelerator Hosted by the International Network for Simulation-based Pediatric Innovation, Research, and Education and the International Pediatric Simulation Society Simul Healthc. 2020 Aug; 15(4):295-297. . View in PubMed

ATS Sch. 2020 Jul 24; 1(3):278-287. . View in PubMed

Tabletop Application of SALT Triage to 10, 100, and 1000 Pediatric Victims Prehosp Disaster Med. 2020 Apr; 35(2):165-169. . View in PubMed

Caregiver Characteristics Associated With Quality of Cardiac Compressions on an Adult Mannequin With Real-Time Visual Feedback: A Simulation-Based Multicenter Study Simul Healthc. 2020 Apr; 15(2):82-88. . View in PubMed

Factors influencing termination of resuscitation in children: a qualitative analysis Int J Emerg Med. 2020 Mar 14; 13(1):12. . View in PubMed

Barriers to Effective Teamwork Relating to Pediatric Resuscitations: Perceptions of Pediatric Emergency Medicine Staff Pediatr Emerg Care. 2020 Mar; 36(3):e146-e150. . View in PubMed

Parent-Centered Perspectives on a Validated Asthma Questionnaire in the Emergency Department Acad Pediatr. 2020 Feb 10. . View in PubMed

The Effect of Rapid Fluid Infusions on Transabdominal Pelvic Ultrasound Timing Among Female Pediatric Patients: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial Acad Emerg Med. 2020 11; 27(11):1191-1193. . View in PubMed

Physiological Stress Markers Following Resuscitations Remain Elevated Throughout Physician Shift Hours Acad Emerg Med. 2020 06; 27(6):510-513. . View in PubMed

The Addition of Anaerobic Blood Cultures for Pediatric Patients with Concerns for Bloodstream Infections: Prevalence and Time to Positive Cultures J Clin Microbiol. 2020 08 24; 58(9). . View in PubMed

Parent Perceptions of a Validated Asthma Questionnaire in the Emergency Department Acad Pediatr. 2019 Nov 27. . View in PubMed

A National Patient Safety Curriculum in Pediatric Emergency Medicine Pediatr Emerg Care. 2019 Aug; 35(8):519-521. . View in PubMed

Comparisons of Stress Physiology of Providers in Real-Life Resuscitations and Virtual Reality-Simulated Resuscitations Simul Healthc. 2019 Apr; 14(2):104-112. . View in PubMed

Games Squared: A Card Game to Learn About Using Games in Medical Education J Grad Med Educ. 2019 06; 11(3):337-339. . View in PubMed

The effect of an International competitive leaderboard on self-motivated simulation-based CPR practice among healthcare professionals: A randomized control trial Resuscitation. 2019 05; 138:273-281. . View in PubMed

Impact of simulation-based training on perceived provider confidence in acute multidisciplinary pediatric trauma resuscitation Pediatr Surg Int. 2018 Dec; 34(12):1353-1362. . View in PubMed

Building a Community of Practice for Researchers: The International Network for Simulation-Based Pediatric Innovation, Research and Education Simul Healthc. 2018 Jun; 13(3S Suppl 1):S28-S34. . View in PubMed

Validity Evidence for a Serious Game to Assess Performance on Critical Pediatric Emergency Medicine Scenarios Simul Healthc. 2018 Jun; 13(3):168-180. . View in PubMed

Pediatr Emerg Care. 2018 Feb; 34(2):116-120. . View in PubMed

Script Concordance Testing to Determine Infant Lumbar Puncture Practice Variation Pediatr Emerg Care. 2018 Feb; 34(2):84-92. . View in PubMed

Leveraging Quick Response Code Technology to Facilitate Simulation-Based Leaderboard Competition Simul Healthc. 2018 Feb; 13(1):64-71. . View in PubMed

Recent Advances in Technology and Its Applications to Pediatric Emergency Care Pediatr Clin North Am. 2018 12; 65(6):1229-1246. . View in PubMed

Self-assessment of team performance using T-NOTECHS in simulated pediatric trauma resuscitation is not consistent with expert assessment Am J Surg. 2018 09; 216(3):630-635. . View in PubMed

Radiologic discrepancies in children with special healthcare needs in a pediatric emergency department Am J Emerg Med. 2018 08; 36(8):1356-1362. . View in PubMed

Utilization of just-in-time training for nursing education using the LA Phonospirometry asthma tool J Asthma. 2018 07; 55(7):811-815. . View in PubMed

Gamification in Action: Theoretical and Practical Considerations for Medical Educators Acad Med. 2018 07; 93(7):1014-1020. . View in PubMed

Novel Transfer of Care Sign-out Assessment Tool in a Pediatric Emergency Department Acad Pediatr. 2018 Jan - Feb; 18(1):86-93. . View in PubMed

The effect of multimedia replacing text in resident clinical decision-making assessment Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract. 2017 Oct; 22(4):901-914. . View in PubMed

The Effects of Child Life Specialists on Success Rates of Intravenous Cannulation J Pediatr Nurs. 2017 Sep - Oct; 36:236-240. . View in PubMed

Use of a Novel, Portable, LED-Based Capillary Refill Time Simulator within a Disaster Triage Context Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017 Aug; 32(4):451-456. . View in PubMed

Qualitative assessment of simulation-based training for pediatric trauma resuscitation Surgery. 2017 05; 161(5):1357-1366. . View in PubMed

Conducting multicenter research in healthcare simulation: Lessons learned from the INSPIRE network Adv Simul (Lond). 2017; 2:6. . View in PubMed

Screening residents for infant lumbar puncture readiness with just-in-time simulation-based assessments BMJ Simul Technol Enhanc Learn. 2017; 3(1):17-22. . View in PubMed

Number needed to eat: pizza and resident conference attendance Med Educ. 2016 Dec; 50(12):1204-1207. . View in PubMed

Highlighting Instructional Design Features in Reporting Guidelines for Health Care Simulation Research Simul Healthc. 2016 Oct; 11(5):363-364. . View in PubMed

Qualitative Study Exploring Implementation of a Point-of-Care Competency-Based Lumbar Puncture Program Across Institutions Acad Pediatr. 2016 Sep-Oct; 16(7):621-9. . View in PubMed

PEMNetwork: Barriers and Enablers to Collaboration and Multimedia Education in the Digital Age Pediatr Emerg Care. 2016 Aug; 32(8):565-9. . View in PubMed

Reporting Guidelines for Health Care Simulation Research: Extensions to the CONSORT and STROBE Statements Simul Healthc. 2016 Aug; 11(4):238-48. . View in PubMed

Essentials of PEM Fellowship Part 2: The Profession in Entrustable Professional Activities Pediatr Emerg Care. 2016 Jun; 32(6):410-8. . View in PubMed

Development of a Pediatric Mass Casualty Triage Algorithm Validation Tool Prehosp Emerg Care. 2016 May-Jun; 20(3):343-53. . View in PubMed

The Correlation of Workplace Simulation-Based Assessments With Interns' Infant Lumbar Puncture Success: A Prospective, Multicenter, Observational Study Simul Healthc. 2016 Apr; 11(2):126-33. . View in PubMed

Targeting Simulation-Based Assessment for the Pediatric Milestones: A Survey of Simulation Experts and Program Directors Acad Pediatr. 2016 Apr; 16(3):290-7. . View in PubMed

Reporting guidelines for health care simulation research: Extensions to the CONSORT and STROBE statements BMJ Simul Technol Enhanc Learn. 2016; 2(3):51-60. . View in PubMed

Comparison of Computerized Patients versus Live Moulaged Actors for a Mass-casualty Drill Prehosp Disaster Med. 2015 Oct; 30(5):438-42. . View in PubMed

Accuracy, Efficiency, and Inappropriate Actions Using JumpSTART Triage in MCI Simulations Prehosp Disaster Med. 2015 Oct; 30(5):457-60. . View in PubMed

Introducing Teamwork Challenges in Simulation Using Game Cards Simul Healthc. 2015 Aug; 10(4):223-6. . View in PubMed

Impact of Just-in-Time and Just-in-Place Simulation on Intern Success With Infant Lumbar Puncture Pediatrics. 2015 May; 135(5):e1237-46. . View in PubMed

A retrospective comparison of ketamine dosing regimens for pediatric procedural sedation Eur J Emerg Med. 2015 Apr; 22(2):111-6. . View in PubMed

The greater good: how supervising physicians make entrustment decisions in the pediatric emergency department Acad Pediatr. 2014 Nov-Dec; 14(6):597-602. . View in PubMed

Pediatric emergency medicine asynchronous e-learning: a multicenter randomized controlled Solomon four-group study Acad Emerg Med. 2014 Aug; 21(8):912-9. . View in PubMed

Designing and conducting simulation-based research Pediatrics. 2014 Jun; 133(6):1091-101. . View in PubMed

Traditional nurse triage vs physician telepresence in a pediatric ED Am J Emerg Med. 2014 Apr; 32(4):325-9. . View in PubMed

Script concordance testing: assessing residents' clinical decision-making skills for infant lumbar punctures Acad Med. 2014 Jan; 89(1):128-35. . View in PubMed

Clinical factors and incidence of acute chest syndrome or pneumonia among children with sickle cell disease presenting with a fever: a 17-year review Pediatr Emerg Care. 2013 Jul; 29(7):781-6. . View in PubMed

Predictors for bacteremia in febrile sickle cell disease children in the post-7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine era J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2013 Jul; 35(5):377-82. . View in PubMed

Pediatr Emerg Care. 2013 Apr; 29(4):453-7. . View in PubMed

Interns' success with clinical procedures in infants after simulation training Pediatrics. 2013 Mar; 131(3):e811-20. . View in PubMed

Qualitative evaluation of just-in-time simulation-based learning: the learners' perspective Simul Healthc. 2013 Feb; 8(1):43-8. . View in PubMed

Validation and refinement of a prediction rule to identify children at low risk for acute appendicitis Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2012 Aug; 166(8):738-44. . View in PubMed

Iron poisoning: a literature-based review of epidemiology, diagnosis, and management Pediatr Emerg Care. 2011 Oct; 27(10):978-85. . View in PubMed

Perforated appendicitis and appendicolith in a child presenting as intussusception: a case report Pediatr Emerg Care. 2011 Jul; 27(7):635-8. . View in PubMed

Pediatric traumatic brain injury: the utility of beta-natriuretic peptide J Trauma. 2010 Jun; 68(6):1401-5. . View in PubMed

Research Career Interest: Educational Technology within the healthcare arena, which includes e-learning / multimedia, simulation, virtual reality, and other technologically augmented methods of teaching. Some clinical research including Emergency Department efficiency, pre-hospital care, and trauma care.

I currently sit on the executive board / steering committee of the INSPIRE Network (, an international pediatric simulation research network, as well as the PEMCRC (, the Pediatric Emergency Medicine Clinical Research Committee of the American Academy of Pediatrics.

sc ctsi logoPowered by SC CTSI