Keck School Faculty

Alexander Russell Judkins

Alexander Russell Judkins

Professor of Pathology (Clinical Scholar)
CHLA Department Head of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
CHL Mail Stop 43 Off Campus Los Angeles

Evaluation and Diagnosis of Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumors (Non-Medulloblastoma) Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2022 Jan-Feb; 25(1):34-45. . View in PubMed

Intraoperative Diagnosis for Pediatric Brain Tumors Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2022 Jan-Feb; 25(1):10-22. . View in PubMed

A Practical Approach to the Evaluation and Diagnosis of Pediatric CNS Tumors Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2022 Jan-Feb; 25(1):6-9. . View in PubMed

Rapidly emerging SARS-CoV-2 B1. 1. 7 sub-lineage in the United States of America with spike protein D178H and membrane protein V70L mutations. Emerg Microbes Infect. 2021 Dec; 10(1):1293-1299. . View in PubMed

Emerging variants of concern in SARS-CoV-2 membrane protein: a highly conserved target with potential pathological and therapeutic implications Emerg Microbes Infect. 2021 Dec; 10(1):885-893. . View in PubMed

Epigenetically defined therapeutic targeting in H33G34R/V high-grade gliomas. Sci Transl Med. 2021 Oct 13; 13(615):eabf7860. . View in PubMed

Targeting integrated epigenetic and metabolic pathways in lethal childhood PFA ependymomas Sci Transl Med. 2021 Oct 06; 13(614):eabc0497. . View in PubMed

High Prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 Genetic Variation and D614G Mutation in Pediatric Patients With COVID-19 Open Forum Infect Dis. 2021 Jun; 8(6):ofaa551. . View in PubMed

Deep hypothermic circulatory arrest in cyanotic piglets is associated with increased neuronal necrosis Cardiol Young. 2021 May; 31(5):769-774. . View in PubMed

Increased viral variants in children and young adults with impaired humoral immunity and persistent SARS-CoV-2 infection: A consecutive case series EBioMedicine. 2021 May; 67:103355. . View in PubMed

Persistent SARS-CoV-2 infection and increasing viral variants in children and young adults with impaired humoral immunity medRxiv. 2021 Mar 02. . View in PubMed

Am J Bioeth. 2021 12; 21(12):67-70. . View in PubMed

Histopathological patterns in atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors are related to molecular subgroup Brain Pathol. 2021 09; 31(5):e12967. . View in PubMed

Clinical utility of comprehensive genomic profiling in central nervous system tumors of children and young adults Neurooncol Adv. 2021 Jan-Dec; 3(1):vdab037. . View in PubMed

Autopsy findings of previously described case of diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma-like tumor with EZHIP expression and molecular features of PFA ependymoma Acta Neuropathol Commun. 2021 06 23; 9(1):113. . View in PubMed

SMARCB1 loss induces druggable cyclin D1 deficiency via upregulation of MIR17HG in atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors J Pathol. 2020 09; 252(1):77-87. . View in PubMed

Comprehensive Genome Analysis of 6,000 USA SARS-CoV-2 Isolates Reveals Haplotype Signatures and Localized Transmission Patterns by State and by Country Front Microbiol. 2020; 11:573430. . View in PubMed

Integrated Metabolic and Epigenomic Reprograming by H3K27M Mutations in Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine GliomasCancer Cell. 2020 09 14; 38(3):334-349. e9. . View in PubMed

Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma-like tumor with EZHIP expression and molecular features of PFA ependymoma Acta Neuropathol Commun. 2020 03 20; 8(1):37. . View in PubMed

Efficacy of High-Dose Chemotherapy and Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiation for Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor: A Report From the Children's Oncology Group Trial ACNS0333 J Clin Oncol. 2020 04 10; 38(11):1175-1185. . View in PubMed

Reply to SA. Upadhyaya. J Clin Oncol. 2020 10 01; 38(28):3353-3354. . View in PubMed

SWI/SNF complex heterogeneity is related to polyphenotypic differentiation, prognosis, and immune response in rhabdoid tumors Neuro Oncol. 2020 06 09; 22(6):785-796. . View in PubMed

Advancing biology-based therapeutic approaches for atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors Neuro Oncol. 2020 07 07; 22(7):944-954. . View in PubMed

Sustained response of three pediatric BRAFV600E mutated high-grade gliomas to combined BRAF and MEK inhibitor therapy Oncotarget. 2019 Jan 11; 10(4):551-557. . View in PubMed

Pediatric Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumors of the Brain: Identification of Metabolic Subgroups Using In Vivo 1H-MR Spectroscopy AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2019 05; 40(5):872-877. . View in PubMed

CDK4/6 inhibitors target SMARCA4-determined cyclin D1 deficiency in hypercalcemic small cell carcinoma of the ovary Nat Commun. 2019 02 04; 10(1):558. . View in PubMed

SMARCA4 loss is synthetic lethal with CDK4/6 inhibition in non-small cell lung cancer Nat Commun. 2019 02 04; 10(1):557. . View in PubMed

OncoKids: A Comprehensive Next-Generation Sequencing Panel for Pediatric Malignancies J Mol Diagn. 2018 11; 20(6):765-776. . View in PubMed

Fitting the epigenome into the picture: methylation classification for paediatric brain tumours Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol. 2018 10; 44(6):543-547. . View in PubMed

Transmission of a TP53 germline mutation from unaffected male carrier associated with pediatric glioblastoma in his child and gestational choriocarcinoma in his female partner Cold Spring Harb Mol Case Stud. 2018 04; 4(2). . View in PubMed

Immunohistochemical analysis of H3K27me3 demonstrates global reduction in group-A childhood posterior fossa ependymoma and is a powerful predictor of outcome Acta Neuropathol. 2017 11; 134(5):705-714. . View in PubMed

Timing of Smarcb1 and Nf2 inactivation determines schwannoma versus rhabdoid tumor development Nat Commun. 2017 08 21; 8(1):300. . View in PubMed

Integrated (epi)-Genomic Analyses Identify Subgroup-Specific Therapeutic Targets in CNS Rhabdoid Tumors Cancer Cell. 2016 Dec 12; 30(6):891-908. . View in PubMed

A Rapid and Sensitive Next-Generation Sequencing Method to Detect RB1 Mutations Improves Care for Retinoblastoma Patients and Their Families J Mol Diagn. 2016 07; 18(4):480-93. . View in PubMed

Lowered H3K27me3 and DNA hypomethylation define poorly prognostic pediatric posterior fossa ependymomas Sci Transl Med. 2016 11 23; 8(366):366ra161. . View in PubMed

Molecular subgroups of medulloblastoma identification using noninvasive magnetic resonance spectroscopy Neuro Oncol. 2016 Jan; 18(1):126-31. . View in PubMed

Hypoxia Induces Production of L-2-Hydroxyglutarate Cell Metab. 2015 Aug 04; 22(2):304-11. . View in PubMed

Molecular subgroups of atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumours in children: an integrated genomic and clinicopathological analysis Lancet Oncol. 2015 May; 16(5):569-82. . View in PubMed

Tumor-associated macrophages in SHH subgroup of medulloblastomas Clin Cancer Res. 2015 Mar 15; 21(6):1457-65. . View in PubMed

Ganglioglioma of the Spinal Cord J Clin Imaging Sci. 2015; 5:53. . View in PubMed

A sensitive and specific histopathologic prognostic marker for H3F3A K27M mutant pediatric glioblastomas Acta Neuropathol. 2014 Nov; 128(5):743-53. . View in PubMed

Asparagine plays a critical role in regulating cellular adaptation to glutamine depletion Mol Cell. 2014 Oct 23; 56(2):205-218. . View in PubMed

Pathology and diagnosis of SMARCB1-deficient tumors Cancer Genet. 2014 Sep; 207(9):358-64. . View in PubMed

Akt-dependent metabolic reprogramming regulates tumor cell histone acetylation Cell Metab. 2014 Aug 05; 20(2):306-319. . View in PubMed

PID1 (NYGGF4), a new growth-inhibitory gene in embryonal brain tumors and gliomas Clin Cancer Res. 2014 Feb 15; 20(4):827-36. . View in PubMed

The alternative lengthening of telomere phenotype is significantly associated with loss of ATRX expression in high-grade pediatric and adult astrocytomas: a multi-institutional study of 214 astrocytomas Mod Pathol. 2013 Nov; 26(11):1425-32. . View in PubMed

Evaluation of histone 3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) and enhancer of Zest 2 (EZH2) in pediatric glial and glioneuronal tumors shows decreased H3K27me3 in H3F3A K27M mutant glioblastomas Brain Pathol. 2013 Sep; 23(5):558-64. . View in PubMed

PDGFRA amplification is common in pediatric and adult high-grade astrocytomas and identifies a poor prognostic group in IDH1 mutant glioblastoma Brain Pathol. 2013 Sep; 23(5):565-73. . View in PubMed

Outcome of infants and young children with newly diagnosed ependymoma treated on the "Head Start" III prospective clinical trial J Neurooncol. 2013 Jun; 113(2):285-91. . View in PubMed

Histone 3 lysine 9 trimethylation is differentially associated with isocitrate dehydrogenase mutations in oligodendrogliomas and high-grade astrocytomas J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2013 Apr; 72(4):298-306. . View in PubMed

Epithelioid sarcoma is associated with a high percentage of SMARCB1 deletions Mod Pathol. 2013 Mar; 26(3):385-92. . View in PubMed

MiRNA-9 and MiRNA-200a distinguish hemangioblastomas from metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinomas in the CNS Brain Pathol. 2012 Jul; 22(4):522-9. . View in PubMed

Definition of genetic events directing the development of distinct types of brain tumors from postnatal neural stem/progenitor cells Cancer Res. 2012 Jul 01; 72(13):3381-92. . View in PubMed

Surgical treatment of brain tumors in infants younger than six months of age and review of the literature World Neurosurg. 2012 Jul; 78(1-2):137-44. . View in PubMed

Spinal cord ependymomas and myxopapillary ependymomas in the first 2 decades of life: a clinicopathological and immunohistochemical characterization of 19 cases J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2012 Jun; 9(6):646-53. . View in PubMed

A visual latent semantic approach for automatic analysis and interpretation of anaplastic medulloblastoma virtual slides Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv. 2012; 15(Pt 1):157-64. . View in PubMed

Intracranial sarcoma metastasizing along distal shunt tubing Pediatr Neurosurg. 2012; 48(1):62-3. . View in PubMed

Epithelioid malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor arising in a schwannoma, in a patient with "neuroblastoma-like" schwannomatosis and a novel germline SMARCB1 mutation Am J Surg Pathol. 2012 Jan; 36(1):154-60. . View in PubMed

Claudin-6 is a nonspecific marker for malignant rhabdoid and other pediatric tumors Am J Surg Pathol. 2012 Jan; 36(1):73-80. . View in PubMed

Pulmonary edema and cardiac dysfunction after resection of a fourth ventricle tumor in a toddler: case report Childs Nerv Syst. 2011 Nov; 27(11):2005-9. . View in PubMed

Malignant rhabdoid tumors express stem cell factors, which relate to the expression of EZH2 and Id proteins Am J Surg Pathol. 2011 Oct; 35(10):1463-72. . View in PubMed

p16INK4A and p14ARF tumor suppressor pathways are deregulated in malignant rhabdoid tumors J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2011 Jul; 70(7):596-609. . View in PubMed

Polymicrogyria includes fusion of the molecular layer and decreased neuronal populations but normal cortical laminar organization J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2011 Jun; 70(6):438-43. . View in PubMed

Nonsense mutation and inactivation of SMARCA4 (BRG1) in an atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor showing retained SMARCB1 (INI1) expression Am J Surg Pathol. 2011 Jun; 35(6):933-5. . View in PubMed

The genetic landscape of the childhood cancer medulloblastoma Science. 2011 Jan 28; 331(6016):435-9. . View in PubMed

An integrated texton and bag of words classifier for identifying anaplastic medulloblastomas Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2011; 2011:3443-6. . View in PubMed

Spectrum of SMARCB1/INI1 mutations in familial and sporadic rhabdoid tumors Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2011 Jan; 56(1):7-15. . View in PubMed

The Relationship among Hypoxia, Proliferation, and Outcome in Patients with De Novo Glioblastoma: A Pilot Study Transl Oncol. 2010 Jun 01; 3(3):160-9. . View in PubMed

Coexisting follicular and mantle cell lymphoma with each having an in situ component: A novel, curious, and complex consultation case of coincidental, composite, colonizing lymphoma Am J Clin Pathol. 2010 Apr; 133(4):584-91. . View in PubMed

Immunoprofile of mesenchymal chondrosarcoma: aberrant desmin and EMA expression, retention of INI1, and negative estrogen receptor in 22 female-predominant central nervous system and musculoskeletal cases Ann Diagn Pathol. 2010 Feb; 14(1):8-14. . View in PubMed

Ependymoblastoma: dear, damned, distracting diagnosis, farewell!* Brain Pathol. 2010 Jan; 20(1):133-9. . View in PubMed

Surgical treatment of a clival-C2 atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2010 Jan; 5(1):75-9. . View in PubMed

Duplication of 7q34 in pediatric low-grade astrocytomas detected by high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism-based genotype arrays results in a novel BRAF fusion gene Brain Pathol. 2009 Jul; 19(3):449-58. . View in PubMed

Digital pathology: a tool for 21st century neuropathology Brain Pathol. 2009 Apr; 19(2):305-16. . View in PubMed

Computer- and Internet-based tools for neuropathology in the 21st century Brain Pathol. 2009 Apr; 19(2):303-4. . View in PubMed

Genomic analysis using high-density single nucleotide polymorphism-based oligonucleotide arrays and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification provides a comprehensive analysis of INI1/SMARCB1 in malignant rhabdoid tumors Clin Cancer Res. 2009 Mar 15; 15(6):1923-30. . View in PubMed

Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor of the central nervous system in an 18-year-old patient Clin Neuropathol. 2009 Jan-Feb; 28(1):1-10. . View in PubMed

Loss of INI1 expression defines a unique subset of pediatric undifferentiated soft tissue sarcomas Mod Pathol. 2009 Jan; 22(1):142-50. . View in PubMed

Imaging and analytical methods as applied to the evaluation of vasculature and hypoxia in human brain tumors Radiat Res. 2008 Dec; 170(6):677-90. . View in PubMed

Neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) isoform expression is associated with neuroblastoma differentiation status Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2008 Jul; 51(1):10-6. . View in PubMed

Proteomic identification of FHL1 as the protein mutated in human reducing body myopathy J Clin Invest. 2008 Mar; 118(3):904-12. . View in PubMed

Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor arising in the setting of a pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma J Neurooncol. 2007 Sep; 84(2):217-22. . View in PubMed

Immunohistochemistry of INI1 expression: a new tool for old challenges in CNS and soft tissue pathology Adv Anat Pathol. 2007 Sep; 14(5):335-9. . View in PubMed

Differential cellular gene expression in ganglioglioma Epilepsia. 2007 Apr; 48(4):646-53. . View in PubMed

Treatment of Susac syndrome with gamma globulin and corticosteroids J Neurol Sci. 2006 Dec 21; 251(1-2):17-22. . View in PubMed

P-Akt expression distinguishes two types of malignant rhabdoid tumors J Cell Physiol. 2006 Nov; 209(2):422-7. . View in PubMed

Gliomatosis cerebri: 20 years of experience at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Cancer. 2006 Oct 01; 107(7):1597-606. . View in PubMed

Predisposition to atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor due to an inherited INI1 mutation Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2006 Sep; 47(3):279-84. . View in PubMed

Dystrophic neuritic processes in epileptic cortex Epilepsy Res. 2006 Jul; 70(1):49-58. . View in PubMed

Germinoma: unusual imaging and pathological characteristicsReport of two cases. J Neurosurg. 2006 Feb; 104(2 Suppl):143-8. . View in PubMed

Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor evolving from an optic pathway ganglioglioma: case study Neuro Oncol. 2006 Jan; 8(1):79-82. . View in PubMed

Clinicopathologic and genetic profile of intracranial marginal zone lymphoma: a primary low-grade CNS lymphoma that mimics meningioma J Clin Oncol. 2005 Aug 20; 23(24):5718-27. . View in PubMed

Intracranial capillary hemangioma: case report and review of the literature Surg Neurol. 2005 Aug; 64(2):154-9. . View in PubMed

INI1 expression is retained in composite rhabdoid tumors, including rhabdoid meningiomas Mod Pathol. 2005 Jul; 18(7):951-8. . View in PubMed

INI1 protein expression distinguishes atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor from choroid plexus carcinoma J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2005 May; 64(5):391-7. . View in PubMed

Chromosome 22q deletions in atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors in adults Brain Pathol. 2005 Jan; 15(1):23-8. . View in PubMed

Intramedullary cervical spine germinoma: case report Neurosurgery. 2004 Dec; 55(6):1432. . View in PubMed

Immunohistochemical analysis of hSNF5/INI1 distinguishes renal and extra-renal malignant rhabdoid tumors from other pediatric soft tissue tumors Am J Surg Pathol. 2004 Nov; 28(11):1485-91. . View in PubMed

Testicular seminoma 16 years after treatment for CNS germinoma J Neurooncol. 2004 Oct; 70(1):83-5. . View in PubMed

Immunohistochemical analysis of hSNF5/INI1 in pediatric CNS neoplasms Am J Surg Pathol. 2004 May; 28(5):644-50. . View in PubMed

Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma with cranial and spinal metastases in a patient with tuberous sclerosisCase report. J Neurosurg. 2004 May; 100(5 Suppl Pediatrics):498-500. . View in PubMed

Regional low-flow perfusion improves neurologic outcome compared with deep hypothermic circulatory arrest in neonatal piglets J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2004 Apr; 127(4):1051-6; discussion 1056-7. . View in PubMed

Comparative measurements of hypoxia in human brain tumors using needle electrodes and EF5 binding Cancer Res. 2004 Mar 01; 64(5):1886-92. . View in PubMed

Technical communication: rationale and technique for examination of nervous system in suspected infant victims of abuse Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 2004 Mar; 25(1):29-32. . View in PubMed

Inflicted childhood neurotrauma (shaken baby syndrome): ophthalmic findings J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2004 Mar-Apr; 41(2):80-8; quiz 105-6. . View in PubMed

Dysplasia: a common finding in intractable pediatric temporal lobe epilepsy Neurology. 2003 Aug 12; 61(3):365-8. . View in PubMed

Modified ultrafiltration may not improve neurologic outcome following deep hypothermic circulatory arrest Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2003 Aug; 24(2):243-8. . View in PubMed

Co-occurrence of Parkinson's disease with progressive supranuclear palsy Acta Neuropathol. 2002 May; 103(5):526-30. . View in PubMed

Mycotic aneurysm and cerebral infarction resulting from fungal sinusitis: imaging and pathologic correlation AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2001 May; 22(5):858-63. . View in PubMed

Utility of immunohistochemistry in the evaluation of necrotic thyroid tumors Hum Pathol. 1999 Nov; 30(11):1373-6. . View in PubMed

Sensitivity and specificity of antibodies on necrotic tumor tissue Am J Clin Pathol. 1998 Nov; 110(5):641-6. . View in PubMed

A murine model of allergic rhinitis: studies on the role of IgE in pathogenesis and analysis of the eosinophil influx elicited by allergen and eotaxin J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1998 Jul; 102(1):65-74. . View in PubMed

Unique cytomegalovirus intracytoplasmic inclusions in ectocervical cells on a cervical/endocervical smear Diagn Cytopathol. 1998 Feb; 18(2):110-2. . View in PubMed

Effects of lead on growth plate chondrocyte phenotype Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1996 Sep; 140(1):164-72. . View in PubMed

Granular histiocytosis of pelvic lymph nodes following total hip arthroplastyThe presence of wear debris, cytokine production, and immunologically activated macrophages. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1996 Apr; 78(4):482-96. . View in PubMed

Primary lymphoma of boneCorrelation of magnetic resonance imaging features with cytokine production by tumor cells. Cancer. 1995 Feb 15; 75(4):973-80. . View in PubMed

Dr. Judkins is recognized for his diagnostic expertise and research in pediatric brain tumors, particularly embryonal CNS neoplasm including atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RT). He is a reviewer of pediatric brain tumors for Children’s Oncology Group. He also is recognized for his work in nonneoplastic pediatric neuropathology, where his focus has been on developmental malformations and the neuropathology of seizure disorders. Dr. Judkins has developed unique expertise in digital pathology and is working to build tools to integrate bioinformatics and pathology image data analysis.
Dr. Judkins received a bachelor’s degree (1991) from State University of New York Geneseo, graduating Summa Cum laude. He received his medical degree (1996) from the University of Rochester School of Medicine in New York. Dr. Judkins trained at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, where he completed residency training in anatomic pathology (1996-97), and served as chief resident (1998-99). He completed fellowships in neuropathology (1999-2001, the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania) and forensic pathology (2001-02, Office of the Medical Examiner in Philadelphia and MCP Hahneman University).

Dr. Judkins is board certified in anatomic pathology, neuropathology and forensic pathology. He joined the faculty of the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine as an assistant professor in the Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine and the staff of CHOP as a neuropathologist in 2002.

He currently serves in editorial positions at a variety of journals and publications, including Brain Pathology, the Journal of Neuropathology & Experimental Neurology and Acta Neuropathologica.

Prior to joining our hospital, Dr. Judkins served as the chief of the Division of Neuropathology, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine at Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia. He also served as the director of their Pathology Core Laboratory and assistant professor of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine. He also has made significant contributions to both the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia Research Institute and the Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine. He developed the Pathology Core Laboratory to offer services and support to researchers at CHOP, as well as the broader University of Pennsylvania research community.
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