Howard Neil Hodis, MD

Professor of Medicine

Harry J. Bauer and Dorothy Bauer Rawlins Professorship in Cardiology

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Overview

During his academic career, Dr. Hodis’ overarching research interest has been in the area of vascular disease and atherobiology with investigative pursuits to understand the genetics and biology of the etiology and progression of these aging processes including prevention and intervention. In addition, Dr. Hodis’ research interests include development and application of imaging and measurement tools for the assessment, screening, prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Since vascular disease is an aging process affected by many conditions, Dr Hodis’ approach is integrative biology in practice and highly collaborative in application involving study of a broad array of conditions and disease processes that converge either as a cause of or result from atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Dr. Hodis’ work is translational in nature and spans basic to clinical science, including large population studies and intervention trials.

With more than 26 years of continuous NIH funding, Dr. Hodis has extensive experience as Principal Investigator from 20 NIH projects including 8 randomized controlled trials integrating translational research, biomedical engineering and integrative biology/medicine spanning basic, clinical and genetic investigation. In addition, Dr. Hodis has an extensive collaborative record as Co-Principal Investigator or Co-Investigator on another 24 NIH projects. By leading a stable research team as director of the USC Atherosclerosis Research Unit, Dr. Hodis has successfully completed 10 single-center, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled serial arterial imaging trials of menopausal hormone therapy, lipid-lowering therapy, insulin-sensitizers, nattokinase, vitamin E, vitamin B and soy isoflavone supplementation.

In addition, as the director of the Atherosclerosis Research Unit Core Imaging and Reading Center (CIRC), Dr. Hodis has 25 years of experience in leading a stable team of highly-trained and experienced imaging specialist in the coordination and conduct of over 25 human clinical studies predominantly NIH-funded that have included large national randomized controlled trials and epidemiological and community studies. The CIRC provides a variety of non-invasive arterial imaging services encompassing anatomical and physiological measurements of atherosclerosis developed by Dr. Hodis’ team providing a full-array of research and experienced capability to support all investigational approaches that employ arterial imaging.

Dr. Hodis has received a number of honors and awards including the North American Menopause Society Thomas Clarkson Outstanding Clinical and Basic Science Research Award, a peer-nominated award for translational contributions, NASA Technology Awards and an Outstanding Teaching Award from the University of Southern California. He has been inducted into the prestigious Association of American Physicians and holds membership in a variety of scientific organizations, such as Fellow of the American Heart Association. Dr. Hodis serves on Special Emphasis Panels and review committees for the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and other funding agencies and has extensive experience as Chair of Data Safety and Monitoring Boards for NIH-funded studies. Dr. Hodis has served on dissertation committees and mentored 56 MD/PhD, PhD and master level graduate students, most of whom have used research data from Atherosclerosis Research Unit (ARU) studies as the basis for their theses. In addition, Dr. Hodis has served as a co-mentor on several NIH K-awards. Dr. Hodis has delivered more than 300 invited presentations worldwide and authored or co-authored more than 250 original scientific, peer reviewed publications many of which have been in the field of women’s health.

A major focus and special interest of Dr. Hodis’ research has been women’s health in which he and his colleagues have made significant contributions to science. Dr. Hodis and his colleagues have conducted two of the earliest randomized controlled trials of hormone therapy and atherosclerosis intervention, the Estradiol Prevention Atherosclerosis Trial (EPAT; Ann Intern Med 2001) and the Women’s Estrogen-progestin Lipid-Lowering Hormone Atherosclerosis Regression Trial (WELL-HART; New Engl J Med 2003). The results of these early trials contributed to formation of the menopausal hormone therapy timing hypothesis that posits that the effects of hormone therapy depend on timing of initiation of hormone therapy in relation to menopause. Dr. Hodis and his colleagues conducted the Early versus Later Intervention Trial with Estradiol (ELITE; New Engl J Med 2016), the only randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial designed to test the menopausal hormone therapy timing hypothesis. The results of ELITE showed that the progression of atherosclerosis was reduced with hormone therapy when initiated in women less than 6 years since menopause but a null effect on atherosclerosis progression when initiated in women more than 10 years since menopause. ELITE supports the menopausal hormone therapy timing hypothesis, mechanistically explaining the divergent results from other studies reported over the past 40 years and has major public health significance. In addition, Dr. Hodis and his colleagues have conducted other women’s health studies such as the Women’s Isoflavone Soy Health (WISH; Stroke 2011) study, the only soy isoflavone primary prevention atherosclerosis trial in postmenopausal women. The ARU program is described at aru.usc.edu.

Awards

  • North American Menopause Society: Thomas Clarkson Outstanding Clinical and Basic Science Research Award, 2010
  • Association of American Physicians: AAP Member, 2008
  • Western Society for Clinical Investigation: WSCI Member, 2008
  • National Aeronautics and Space Administration: NASA Inventions and Contributions Board Space Act Award, 2008
  • Department of Family Medicine, USC: Outstanding Teacher Award, 1991
  • American Heart Association: AHA Fellow, 1991

Publications

  • Effect of Hormone Therapy on Lipoprotein Subfractions in Early and Late Postmenopausal Women J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2024 Mar 28. . View in PubMed
  • Subclinical Atherosclerosis Across the Menopausal Transition in Women With and Without HIV J Infect Dis. 2024 Mar 14; 229(3):780-785. . View in PubMed
  • Response to letter to editor Menopause. 2024 Mar 01; 31(3):243-244. . View in PubMed
  • Association of HIV and HCV Infection With Carotid Artery Plaque Echomorphology in the MACS/WIHS Combined Cohort Study Stroke. 2024 Mar; 55(3):651-659. . View in PubMed
  • Perceived Stress From Childhood to Adulthood and Cardiometabolic End Points in Young Adulthood: An 18-Year Prospective Study J Am Heart Assoc. 2024 Feb 06; 13(3):e030741. . View in PubMed
  • Tryptophan metabolism, gut microbiota, and carotid artery plaque in women with and without HIV infection AIDS. 2024 Feb 01; 38(2):223-233. . View in PubMed
  • Menopausal hormone therapy and coronary heart disease: the roller-coaster history Climacteric. 2024 Feb; 27(1):81-88. . View in PubMed
  • Sex Hormones, the Stool Microbiome, and Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Women With and Without HIV J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2024 Jan 18; 109(2):483-497. . View in PubMed
  • ‘Tis but a scratch: a critical review of the Women’s Health Initiative evidence associating menopausal hormone therapy with the risk of breast cancer Menopause. 2023 Dec 01; 30(12):1241-1245. . View in PubMed
  • Generalizability of cognitive results from clinical trial participants to an older adult population: Addressing external validity Alzheimers Dement (Amst). 2023 Apr-Jun; 15(2):e12417. . View in PubMed
  • Gut microbiota, circulating inflammatory markers and metabolites, and carotid artery atherosclerosis in HIV infection Microbiome. 2023 05 27; 11(1):119. . View in PubMed
  • Menopausal Hormone Therapy and Subclinical Cardiovascular Disease in Women With and Without Human Immunodeficiency Virus Clin Infect Dis. 2023 02 08; 76(3):e661-e670. . View in PubMed
  • HIV infection and cardiovascular disease have both shared and distinct monocyte gene expression features: Women’s Interagency HIV study PLoS One. 2023; 18(5):e0285926. . View in PubMed
  • The association of hysterectomy with or without ovarian conservation with subclinical atherosclerosis progression in healthy postmenopausal women Menopause. 2023 07 01; 30(7):692-702. . View in PubMed
  • Comparison of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Between 2 Subclinical Atherosclerosis Measures in Healthy Postmenopausal Women: Carotid Artery Wall Thickness and Echogenicity: Carotid Artery Wall Thickness and Echogenicity J Ultrasound Med. 2023 Jan; 42(1):35-44. . View in PubMed
  • Correction: Childhood traffic-related air pollution and adverse changes in subclinical atherosclerosis measures from childhood to adulthood Environ Health. 2022 Nov 16; 21(1):110. . View in PubMed
  • Author Correction: Combined protein and transcript single-cell RNA sequencing in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells BMC Biol. 2022 Oct 20; 20(1):237. . View in PubMed
  • Concentrations of endogenous sex steroid hormones and SHBG in healthy postmenopausal women J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2022 Oct; 223:106080. . View in PubMed
  • Single cell transcriptomics and TCR reconstruction reveal CD4 T cell response to MHC-II-restricted APOB epitope in human cardiovascular disease Nat Cardiovasc Res. 2022 May; 1(5):462-475. . View in PubMed
  • Menopausal Hormone Replacement Therapy and Reduction of All-Cause Mortality and Cardiovascular Disease: It Is About Time and Timing Cancer J. 2022 May-Jun 01; 28(3):208-223. . View in PubMed
  • Gut Microbiota, Plasma Metabolomic Profiles, and Carotid Artery Atherosclerosis in HIV Infection Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2022 08; 42(8):1081-1093. . View in PubMed
  • Effect of menopausal hormone therapy on arterial wall echomorphology: Results from the Early versus Late Intervention Trial with Estradiol (ELITE) Maturitas. 2022 08; 162:15-22. . View in PubMed
  • Grayscale Ultrasound Texture Features of Carotid and Brachial Arteries in People With HIV Infection Before and After Antiretroviral Therapy J Am Heart Assoc. 2022 03; 11(5):e024142. . View in PubMed
  • The severity of individual menopausal symptoms, cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality in the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Cohort Menopause. 2022 12 01; 29(12):1365-1374. . View in PubMed
  • Combined protein and transcript single-cell RNA sequencing in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells BMC Biol. 2022 09 01; 20(1):193. . View in PubMed
  • Subclinical carotid artery atherosclerosis and cognitive function in older adults Alzheimers Res Ther. 2022 05 07; 14(1):63. . View in PubMed
  • Effect of menopausal hormone therapy on methylation levels in early and late postmenopausal women Clin Epigenetics. 2022 07 18; 14(1):90. . View in PubMed
  • Use of oral estradiol plus vaginal progesterone in healthy postmenopausal women Maturitas. 2021 Dec; 154:13-19. . View in PubMed
  • Determinants of attained estradiol levels in response to oral estradiol plus progesterone therapy Climacteric. 2021 04; 24(2):194-199. . View in PubMed
  • Hormone replacement therapy – where are we now? Climacteric. 2021 02; 24(1):3-10.. View in PubMed
  • Brief Report: Subclinical Carotid Artery Atherosclerosis Is Associated With Increased Expression of Peripheral Blood IL-32 Isoforms Among Women Living With HIV J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2021 10 01; 88(2):186-191. . View in PubMed
  • Childhood traffic-related air pollution and adverse changes in subclinical atherosclerosis measures from childhood to adulthood Environ Health. 2021 04 14; 20(1):44. . View in PubMed
  • Classical monocyte transcriptomes reveal significant anti-inflammatory statin effect in women with chronic HIV Cardiovasc Res. 2021 03 21; 117(4):1166-1177. . View in PubMed
  • Nattokinase atherothrombotic prevention study: A randomized controlled trial Clin Hemorheol Microcirc. 2021; 78(4):339-353. . View in PubMed
  • Brain delivery of supplemental docosahexaenoic acid (DHA): A randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial EBioMedicine. 2020 Sep; 59:102883. . View in PubMed
  • Short Communication: Carotid Artery Plaque Burden in HIV Is Associated with Soluble Mediators and Monocytes AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2020 12; 36(12):1020-1023. . View in PubMed
  • Factors Associated With Serum Estradiol Levels Among Postmenopausal Women Using Hormone Therapy Obstet Gynecol. 2020 10; 136(4):675-684. . View in PubMed
  • Effects of Estradiol Dose and Serum Estradiol Levels on Metabolic Measures in Early and Late Postmenopausal Women in the REPLENISH Trial J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2020 08; 29(8):1052-1058. . View in PubMed
  • Serum Metabolomic Response to Low- and High-Dose Vitamin E Supplementation in Two Randomized Controlled Trials Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2020 07; 29(7):1329-1334. . View in PubMed
  • Association of oral estradiol dose/levels with coagulation measures in early/late postmenopausal women Climacteric. 2020 06; 23(3):273-278. . View in PubMed
  • Association of hot flushes with ghrelin and adipokines in early versus late postmenopausal women Menopause. 2020 05; 27(5):512-518. . View in PubMed
  • Heart fat and carotid artery atherosclerosis progression in recently menopausal women: impact of menopausal hormone therapy: The KEEPS trial Menopause. 2020 03; 27(3):255-262. . View in PubMed
  • Brief Report: Cystatin C-Based Estimation of Glomerular Filtration Rate and Association With Atherosclerosis Imaging Markers in People Living With HIV J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2020 12 01; 85(4):466-469. . View in PubMed
  • Feasibility of quantifying change in immune white cells in abdominal adipose tissue in response to an immune modulator in clinical obesity PLoS One. 2020; 15(9):e0237496. . View in PubMed
  • Menopause Transition and Cardiovascular Disease Risk: Implications for Timing of Early Prevention: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association Circulation. 2020 12 22; 142(25):e506-e532. . View in PubMed
  • Statin therapy: does sex matter? Menopause. 2019 12; 26(12):1425-1435.. View in PubMed
  • Hierarchical measurement structure in the Women’s Health Questionnaire: a confirmatory factor analysis Climacteric. 2019 10; 22(5):448-453. . View in PubMed
  • The Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS): what have we learned? Menopause. 2019 09; 26(9):1071-1084.. View in PubMed
  • Apolipoprotein E4 genotype in combination with poor metabolic profile is associated with reduced cognitive performance in healthy postmenopausal women: implications for late onset Alzheimer’s disease Menopause. 2019 01; 26(1):7-15. . View in PubMed
  • Changes in carotid artery intima-media thickness 3 years after cessation of menopausal hormone therapy: follow-up from the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study Menopause. 2019 01; 26(1):24-31. . View in PubMed
  • Inflammatory biomarkers and subclinical carotid atherosclerosis in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected men in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study PLoS One. 2019; 14(4):e0214735. . View in PubMed
  • Elevated Plasma Ceramides Are Associated With Antiretroviral Therapy Use and Progression of Carotid Artery Atherosclerosis in HIV Infection Circulation. 2019 04 23; 139(17):2003-2011. . View in PubMed
  • Association of Lipidomic Profiles With Progression of Carotid Artery Atherosclerosis in HIV Infection JAMA Cardiol. 2019 12 01; 4(12):1239-1249. . View in PubMed
  • Effect of ApoE4 Genotype on the Association Between Metabolic Phenotype and Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Postmenopausal Women Am J Cardiol. 2019 10 01; 124(7):1031-1037. . View in PubMed
  • Loss of CXCR4 on non-classical monocytes in participants of the Women’s Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) with subclinical atherosclerosis Cardiovasc Res. 2019 05 01; 115(6):1029-1040. . View in PubMed
  • Elevated Microparticle Tissue Factor Activity Is Associated With Carotid Artery Plaque in HIV-Infected Women J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2019 05 01; 81(1):36-43. . View in PubMed
  • Plasma acylcarnitines and progression of carotid artery atherosclerosis in HIV infection AIDS. 2019 05 01; 33(6):1043-1052. . View in PubMed
  • Differential Effect of Plasma Estradiol on Subclinical Atherosclerosis Progression in Early vs Late Postmenopause J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2019 02 01; 104(2):293-300. . View in PubMed
  • Menopausal hormone therapy and breast cancer: what is the evidence from randomized trials? Climacteric. 2018 12; 21(6):521-528.. View in PubMed
  • Cardiovascular risk after withdrawal of hormone therapy Menopause. 2018 04; 25(4):365-367. . View in PubMed
  • Carotid Artery Stiffness and Cognitive Decline Among Women With or at Risk for HIV Infection J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2018 07 01; 78(3):338-347. . View in PubMed
  • Humanin Prevents Age-Related Cognitive Decline in Mice and is Associated with Improved Cognitive Age in Humans Sci Rep. 2018 09 21; 8(1):14212. . View in PubMed
  • Plasma Tryptophan-Kynurenine Metabolites Are Altered in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection and Associated With Progression of Carotid Artery Atherosclerosis Clin Infect Dis. 2018 07 02; 67(2):235-242. . View in PubMed
  • Testosterone Therapy in Men With Hypogonadism: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2018 05 01; 103(5):1715-1744. . View in PubMed
  • Gut Microbial-Related Choline Metabolite Trimethylamine-N-Oxide Is Associated With Progression of Carotid Artery Atherosclerosis in HIV Infection J Infect Dis. 2018 09 22; 218(9):1474-1479. . View in PubMed
  • Carotid artery atherosclerosis is associated with mortality in HIV-positive women and men AIDS. 2018 10 23; 32(16):2393-2403. . View in PubMed
  • Niacin and heart disease prevention: Engraving its tombstone is a mistake J Clin Lipidol. 2017 Nov – Dec; 11(6):1309-1317. . View in PubMed
  • Menopausal hormone therapy for primary prevention: why the USPSTF is wrong Climacteric. 2017 Oct; 20(5):402-413. . View in PubMed
  • Menopausal hormone therapy for primary prevention: why the USPSTF is wrong Menopause. 2017 10; 24(10):1101-1112. . View in PubMed
  • Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness and Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Women With Remote Histories of Preeclampsia: Results From a Rochester Epidemiology Project-Based Study and Meta-analysis Mayo Clin Proc. 2017 09; 92(9):1328-1340. . View in PubMed
  • Longitudinal changes in menopausal symptoms comparing women randomized to low-dose oral conjugated estrogens or transdermal estradiol plus micronized progesterone versus placebo: the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study Menopause. 2017 03; 24(3):238-246. . View in PubMed
  • Effects of Oral vs Transdermal Estrogen Therapy on Sexual Function in Early Postmenopause: Ancillary Study of the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS) JAMA Intern Med. 2017 10 01; 177(10):1471-1479. . View in PubMed
  • Estradiol Therapy After Menopause Mitigates Effects of Stress on Cortisol and Working Memory J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2017 12 01; 102(12):4457-4466. . View in PubMed
  • Genome-wide admixture and association study of subclinical atherosclerosis in the Women’s Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) PLoS One. 2017; 12(12):e0188725. . View in PubMed
  • Association of Macrophage Inflammation Biomarkers With Progression of Subclinical Carotid Artery Atherosclerosis in HIV-Infected Women and Men J Infect Dis. 2017 05 01; 215(9):1352-1361. . View in PubMed
  • Cognitive effects of estradiol after menopause: A randomized trial of the timing hypothesis Neurology. 2016 Aug 16; 87(7):699-708. . View in PubMed
  • Impaired coronary artery distensibility is an endothelium-dependent process and is associated with vulnerable plaque composition Clin Physiol Funct Imaging. 2016 Jul; 36(4):261-8. . View in PubMed
  • Identifying postmenopausal women at risk for cognitive decline within a healthy cohort using a panel of clinical metabolic indicators: potential for detecting an at-Alzheimer’s risk metabolic phenotype Neurobiol Aging. 2016 Apr; 40:155-163. . View in PubMed
  • Vascular Effects of Early versus Late Postmenopausal Treatment with Estradiol N Engl J Med. 2016 Mar 31; 374(13):1221-31. . View in PubMed
  • Specific cell-derived microvesicles: Linking endothelial function to carotid artery intima-media thickness in low cardiovascular risk menopausal women Atherosclerosis. 2016 Mar; 246:21-8. . View in PubMed
  • Prenatal Air Pollution Exposures, DNA Methyl Transferase Genotypes, and Associations with Newborn LINE1 and Alu Methylation and Childhood Blood Pressure and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in the Children’s Health Study Environ Health Perspect. 2016 12; 124(12):1905-1912. . View in PubMed
  • Effect of Reproductive History and Exogenous Hormone Use on Cognitive Function in Mid- and Late Life J Am Geriatr Soc. 2016 12; 64(12):2448-2456. . View in PubMed
  • Back to the future: Hormone replacement therapy as part of a prevention strategy for women at the onset of menopause Atherosclerosis. 2016 11; 254:282-290. . View in PubMed
  • Non-classical monocytes predict progression of carotid artery bifurcation intima-media thickness in HIV-infected individuals on stable antiretroviral therapy HIV Clin Trials. 2016 05; 17(3):114-22. . View in PubMed
  • Pharmacogenomics of estrogens on changes in carotid artery intima-medial thickness and coronary arterial calcification: Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study Physiol Genomics. 2016 Jan; 48(1):33-41. . View in PubMed
  • Association of bilateral oophorectomy with cognitive function in healthy, postmenopausal womenFertil Steril. 2016 09 01; 106(3):749-756. e2. . View in PubMed
  • HIV Infection and Carotid Artery Intima-media Thickness: Pooled Analyses Across 5 Cohorts of the NHLBI HIV-CVD Collaborative Clin Infect Dis. 2016 07 15; 63(2):249-56. . View in PubMed
  • Prenatal Air Pollution Exposure and Early Cardiovascular Phenotypes in Young Adults PLoS One. 2016; 11(3):e0150825. . View in PubMed
  • Telmisartan to reduce cardiovascular risk in older HIV-infected adults: a pilot study HIV Clin Trials. 2015 Oct; 16(5):197-206. . View in PubMed
  • A prospective, randomized clinical trial of antiretroviral therapies on carotid wall thickness AIDS. 2015 Sep 10; 29(14):1775-83. . View in PubMed
  • Extended-Release Niacin Versus Fenofibrate in HIV-Infected Participants With Low High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol: Effects on Endothelial Function, Lipoproteins, and Inflammation Clin Infect Dis. 2015 Sep 01; 61(5):840-9. . View in PubMed
  • HIV Infection Is Associated With Progression of Subclinical Carotid Atherosclerosis Clin Infect Dis. 2015 Aug 15; 61(4):640-50. . View in PubMed
  • Effects of Testosterone Administration for 3 Years on Subclinical Atherosclerosis Progression in Older Men With Low or Low-Normal Testosterone Levels: A Randomized Clinical Trial JAMA. 2015 Aug 11; 314(6):570-81. . View in PubMed
  • Effects of Hormone Therapy on Cognition and Mood in Recently Postmenopausal Women: Findings from the Randomized, Controlled KEEPS-Cognitive and Affective Study PLoS Med. 2015 Jun; 12(6):e1001833; discussion e1001833. . View in PubMed
  • Hormone therapy and risk of all-cause mortality in women treated with statins Menopause. 2015 Apr; 22(4):363-4. . View in PubMed
  • Methods and baseline cardiovascular data from the Early versus Late Intervention Trial with Estradiol testing the menopausal hormone timing hypothesis Menopause. 2015 Apr; 22(4):391-401. . View in PubMed
  • Abnormal blood rheology and chronic low grade inflammation: possible risk factors for accelerated atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease in Lewis negative subjects Atherosclerosis. 2015 Mar; 239(1):248-51. . View in PubMed
  • Echolucency of the carotid artery intima-media complex and intima-media thickness have different cardiovascular risk factor relationships: the Women’s Interagency HIV Study J Am Heart Assoc. 2015 Feb 19; 4(2). . View in PubMed
  • Association of endogenous sex hormones with adipokines and ghrelin in postmenopausal women J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015 Feb; 100(2):508-15. . View in PubMed
  • T-cell activation, both pre- and post-HAART levels, correlates with carotid artery stiffness over 65 years among HIV-infected women in the WIHS. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2014 Nov 01; 67(3):349-56. . View in PubMed
  • Prevention of diseases after menopause Climacteric. 2014 Oct; 17(5):540-56. . View in PubMed
  • Arterial imaging outcomes and cardiovascular risk factors in recently menopausal women: a randomized trial Ann Intern Med. 2014 Aug 19; 161(4):249-60. . View in PubMed
  • Hormone replacement therapy and the association with coronary heart disease and overall mortality: clinical application of the timing hypothesis J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2014 Jul; 142:68-75. . View in PubMed
  • NOS1 methylation and carotid artery intima-media thickness in children Circ Cardiovasc Genet. 2014 Apr; 7(2):116-22. . View in PubMed
  • Associations between urine excretion of isoflavonoids and cognition in postmenopausal women in the Women’s Isoflavone Soy Health clinical trial J Am Geriatr Soc. 2014 Apr; 62(4):629-35. . View in PubMed
  • Effect of prior oophorectomy on changes in bone mineral density and carotid artery intima-media thickness in postmenopausal women Fertil Steril. 2014 Apr; 101(4):1117-22. . View in PubMed
  • Immunologic predictors of coronary artery calcium progression in a contemporary HIV cohort AIDS. 2014 Mar 27; 28(6):831-40. . View in PubMed
  • Menopausal hormone therapy and prevention of chronic diseases: IMS members react to the recent JAMA paper Climacteric. 2014 Feb; 17(1):99-101. . View in PubMed
  • Predictors of subclinical atherosclerosis in women with spinal cord injury Top Spinal Cord Inj Rehabil. 2014; 20(2):90-5. . View in PubMed
  • Components of air pollution and cognitive function in middle-aged and older adults in Los Angeles Neurotoxicology. 2014 Jan; 40:1-7. . View in PubMed
  • Reduced CD14 expression on classical monocytes and vascular endothelial adhesion markers independently associate with carotid artery intima media thickness in chronically HIV-1 infected adults on virologically suppressive anti-retroviral therapy Atherosclerosis. 2014 Jan; 232(1):52-8. . View in PubMed
  • The KEEPS-Cognitive and Affective Study: baseline associations between vascular risk factors and cognition J Alzheimers Dis. 2014; 40(2):331-41. . View in PubMed
  • Response letter to DrTimo Strandberg. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2014 Jan; 62(1):206-7. . View in PubMed
  • Cognition, mood, and physiological concentrations of sex hormones in the early and late postmenopause Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Dec 10; 110(50):20290-5. . View in PubMed
  • Blunted nocturnal cortisol rise is associated with higher carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT) in overweight African American and Latino youth Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2013 Sep; 38(9):1658-67. . View in PubMed
  • Effect of isoflavone soy protein supplementation on endometrial thickness, hyperplasia, and endometrial cancer risk in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial Menopause. 2013 Aug; 20(8):840-4. . View in PubMed
  • Ectopic fat and adipokines in metabolically benign overweight/obese women: the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study Obesity (Silver Spring). 2013 Aug; 21(8):1726-33. . View in PubMed
  • Response to letter regarding article, “Childhood air pollutant exposure and carotid artery intima–media thickness in young adults” Circulation. 2013 Jun 04; 127(22):e659. . View in PubMed
  • Perturbations of circulating levels of RANKL-osteoprotegerin axis in relation to lipids and progression of atherosclerosis in HIV-infected and -uninfected adults: ACTG NWCS 332/A5078 Study AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2013 Jun; 29(6):938-48. . View in PubMed
  • The timing hypothesis and hormone replacement therapy: a paradigm shift in the primary prevention of coronary heart disease in womenPart 2: comparative risks. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2013 Jun; 61(6):1011-1018. . View in PubMed
  • Treatment-related changes in serum lipids and inflammation: clinical relevance remains unclearAnalyses from the Women’s Interagency HIV study. AIDS. 2013 Jun 01; 27(9):1516-9. . View in PubMed
  • The timing hypothesis and hormone replacement therapy: a paradigm shift in the primary prevention of coronary heart disease in womenPart 1: comparison of therapeutic efficacy. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2013 Jun; 61(6):1005-1010. . View in PubMed
  • Birth weight and carotid artery intima-media thicknessJ Pediatr. 2013 May; 162(5):906-11. e1-2. . View in PubMed
  • Gonadotropin and sex steroid levels in HIV-infected premenopausal women and their association with subclinical atherosclerosis in HIV-infected and -uninfected women in the women’s interagency HIV study (WIHS) J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Apr; 98(4):E610-8. . View in PubMed
  • Self-reported menopausal symptoms, coronary artery calcification, and carotid intima-media thickness in recently menopausal women screened for the Kronos early estrogen prevention study (KEEPS) Fertil Steril. 2013 Apr; 99(5):1385-91. . View in PubMed
  • Ultrasonographic measures of cardiovascular disease risk in antiretroviral treatment-naive individuals with HIV infection AIDS. 2013 Mar 27; 27(6):929-937. . View in PubMed
  • Dysfunctional HDL and progression of atherosclerosis in HIV-1-infected and -uninfected adults Lipids Health Dis. 2013 Mar 05; 12:23. . View in PubMed
  • Pioglitazone slows progression of atherosclerosis in prediabetes independent of changes in cardiovascular risk factors Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2013 Feb; 33(2):393-9. . View in PubMed
  • Genetic polymorphisms associated with carotid artery intima-media thickness and coronary artery calcification in women of the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study Physiol Genomics. 2013 Jan 15; 45(2):79-88. . View in PubMed
  • Characterization of vascular disease risk in postmenopausal women and its association with cognitive performance PLoS One. 2013; 8(7):e68741. . View in PubMed
  • Association of subclinical atherosclerosis with lipid levels amongst antiretroviral-treated and untreated HIV-infected women in the Women’s Interagency HIV study Atherosclerosis. 2012 Dec; 225(2):408-11. . View in PubMed
  • Biomarkers of microbial translocation and macrophage activation: association with progression of subclinical atherosclerosis in HIV-1 infection J Infect Dis. 2012 Nov 15; 206(10):1558-67. . View in PubMed
  • Associations among vascular risk factors, carotid atherosclerosis, and cortical volume and thickness in older adults Stroke. 2012 Nov; 43(11):2865-70. . View in PubMed
  • Childhood air pollutant exposure and carotid artery intima-media thickness in young adults Circulation. 2012 Sep 25; 126(13):1614-20. . View in PubMed
  • Vitamin D levels and markers of arterial dysfunction in HIV AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2012 Aug; 28(8):793-7. . View in PubMed
  • Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) as a coronary atherosclerosis risk factor in HIV-infected men: multicenter AIDS cohort study Atherosclerosis. 2012 Aug; 223(2):433-6. . View in PubMed
  • Potential cardiovascular disease risk markers among HIV-infected women initiating antiretroviral treatment J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2012 Aug 01; 60(4):359-68. . View in PubMed
  • Cytomegalovirus immunoglobulin G antibody is associated with subclinical carotid artery disease among HIV-infected women J Infect Dis. 2012 Jun 15; 205(12):1788-96. . View in PubMed
  • Long-term soy isoflavone supplementation and cognition in women: a randomized, controlled trial Neurology. 2012 Jun 05; 78(23):1841-8. . View in PubMed
  • The timing hypothesis for coronary heart disease prevention with hormone therapy: past, present and future in perspective Climacteric. 2012 Jun; 15(3):217-28. . View in PubMed
  • Equol production changes over time in postmenopausal women J Nutr Biochem. 2012 Jun; 23(6):573-9. . View in PubMed
  • Associations between retinol-binding protein 4 and cardiometabolic risk factors and subclinical atherosclerosis in recently postmenopausal women: cross-sectional analyses from the KEEPS study Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2012 May 15; 11:52. . View in PubMed
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