Stefan Bluml, PhD

Research Professor of Radiology (Part-Time)

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Pediatric brain tumors are the second most frequent malignancy of childhood, exceeded only by leukemia and are the leading cause of death from cancer in pediatric oncology. Dr. Blüml studies the metabolism of these tumors in vivo with the goals of better initial diagnoses and characterization, to predict outcomes, and to identify early predictors of the effectiveness of therapies. Newborn brain development: After birth there are monumental developmental changes of the brain whereby helpless infants transform into children and adults capable of the complex cognitive and behavioral processes necessary to function independently in modern society. Particularly critical is early brain development the time during which multiple neurocognitive disorders emerge. At the core, the marked behavioral changes between infancy and adolescence reflect structural maturational changes (e.g., axonal outgrowth, dendritic arborization, myelination, gliogenesis, angiogenesis) and functional maturational changes (e.g., Hebbian learning processes). Dr. Blüml and his collaborators use non-invasive imaging methods to study complex metabolic processes that accompany brain maturation with the goals to establish normal biochemical maturation of the human brain as well as to better characterize abnormal development at a microscopic level.


  • Corrigendum to: Glutathione Increase and Seizure Burden Decrease in Patients with Intractable Epilepsy on Ketogenic Diet J Epilepsy Res. 2023 Dec; 13(2):63-64. . View in PubMed
  • Brain Injury Outcomes after Adjuvant Erythropoietin Neuroprotection for Moderate or Severe Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy: A Report from the HEAL Trial Dev Neurosci. 2023 Oct 31. . View in PubMed
  • Neuroimaging of complications arising after CD19 chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy: A review J Neuroimaging. 2023 Sep-Oct; 33(5):703-715. . View in PubMed
  • Brain Glutathione Increase and Seizure Burden Decrease in Patients with Intractable Epilepsy on Ketogenic Diet J Epilepsy Res. 2023 Jun 30; 13(1):1-6. . View in PubMed
  • How well does neonatal neuroimaging correlate with neurodevelopmental outcomes in infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy? Pediatr Res. 2023 09; 94(3):1018-1025.. View in PubMed
  • Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Metabolites as Biomarkers of Disease Status in Pediatric Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Gliomas (DIPG) Treated with Glioma-Associated Antigen Peptide Vaccines Cancers (Basel). 2022 Dec 05; 14(23). . View in PubMed
  • Trial of Erythropoietin for Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy in Newborns N Engl J Med. 2022 07 14; 387(2):148-159. . View in PubMed
  • Proton and Multinuclear Spectroscopy of the Pediatric Brain Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 2021 Nov; 29(4):543-555. . View in PubMed
  • Fetal neurodevelopmental recovery in donors after laser surgery for twin-twin transfusion syndrome Prenat Diagn. 2021 01; 41(2):190-199. . View in PubMed
  • Integrating neuroimaging biomarkers into the multicentre, high-dose erythropoietin for asphyxia and encephalopathy (HEAL) trial: rationale, protocol and harmonisation BMJ Open. 2021 04 22; 11(4):e043852. . View in PubMed
  • Brain MR imaging and spectroscopy for outcome prognostication after pediatric cardiac arrest Resuscitation. 2020 12; 157:185-194. . View in PubMed
  • Personalising Outcomes after Child Cardiac Arrest (POCCA): design and recruitment challenges of a multicentre, observational study BMJ Open. 2020 10 27; 10(10):e039323. . View in PubMed
  • Rare Pediatric Invasive Gliofibroma Has BRAFV600E Mutation and Transiently Responds to Targeted Therapy Before Progressive Clonal Evolution JCO Precis Oncol. 2019; 3. . View in PubMed
  • The value of universally available raw NMR data for transparency, reproducibility, and integrity in natural product research Nat Prod Rep. 2019 01 01; 36(1):35-107. . View in PubMed
  • Correction: The value of universally available raw NMR data for transparency, reproducibility, and integrity in natural product research Nat Prod Rep. 2019 01 01; 36(1):248-249. . View in PubMed
  • Noninvasive estimation of fetal lung maturity with magnetic resonance spectroscopy Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2018 08; 219(2):209-210. . View in PubMed
  • Association between Subcortical Morphology and Cerebral White Matter Energy Metabolism in Neonates with Congenital Heart Disease Sci Rep. 2018 09 19; 8(1):14057. . View in PubMed
  • Clinical Factors Associated with Cerebral Metabolism in Term Neonates with Congenital Heart DiseaseJ Pediatr. 2017 04; 183:67-73. e1. . View in PubMed
  • Extending PACS Functionality: Towards Facilitating the Conversion of Clinical Necessities into Research-Derived Applications Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2016 Dec; 10160. . View in PubMed
  • Changes in Imaging and Cognition in Juvenile Rats After Whole-Brain Irradiation Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2016 10 01; 96(2):470-478. . View in PubMed
  • The Impact of Venoarterial and Venovenous Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation on Cerebral Metabolism in the Newborn Brain PLoS One. 2016; 11(12):e0168578. . View in PubMed
  • Assessment of diffusion tensor image quality across sites and vendors using the American College of Radiology head phantom J Appl Clin Med Phys. 2016 05 08; 17(3):442-451. . View in PubMed
  • Brain temperature in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy during therapeutic hypothermia J Pediatr. 2014 Dec; 165(6):1129-34. . View in PubMed
  • Characterization of microstructural injury: a novel approach in infant abusive head trauma-initial experience J Neurotrauma. 2014 Oct 01; 31(19):1632-8. . View in PubMed
  • Repeatability of chemical-shift-encoded water-fat MRI and diffusion-tensor imaging in lower extremity muscles in children AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2014 Jun; 202(6):W567-73. . View in PubMed
  • Maintenance of whole-body therapeutic hypothermia during patient transport and magnetic resonance imaging Pediatr Radiol. 2014 May; 44(5):613-7. . View in PubMed
  • Guidelines for acquiring and reporting clinical neurospectroscopy Semin Neurol. 2012 Sep; 32(4):432-53. . View in PubMed
  • Neuroimaging biomarkers of preterm brain injury: toward developing the preterm connectome Pediatr Radiol. 2012 Jan; 42 Suppl 1:S33-61. . View in PubMed
  • Elevated citrate in pediatric astrocytomas with malignant progression Neuro Oncol. 2011 Oct; 13(10):1107-17. . View in PubMed
  • Treatment of children with recurrent high grade gliomas with a bevacizumab containing regimen J Neurooncol. 2011 Jul; 103(3):673-80. . View in PubMed
  • Bone marrow fat is inversely related to cortical bone in young and old subjects J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Mar; 96(3):782-6. . View in PubMed
  • Contralateral hemimicrencephaly in neonatal hemimegalencephaly Pediatr Radiol. 2010 Nov; 40(11):1826-30. . View in PubMed
  • Visualization of cerebrospinal fluid movement with spin labeling at MR imaging: preliminary results in normal and pathophysiologic conditions Radiology. 2008 Nov; 249(2):644-52. . View in PubMed
  • Three-point technique of fat quantification of muscle tissue as a marker of disease progression in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: preliminary study AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2008 Jan; 190(1):W8-12. . View in PubMed
  • Regulation of dendritic cell differentiation and subset distribution by the zinc finger protein CTCF Immunol Lett. 2007 Apr 15; 109(2):165-74. . View in PubMed
  • Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of hydrocephalic infants Pediatr Neurosurg. 2007; 43(6):461-7. . View in PubMed
  • Differentiation of choroid plexus tumors by advanced magnetic resonance spectroscopy Neurosurg Focus. 2005 Jun 15; 18(6A):E4. . View in PubMed
  • MRI tracer study of the cerebrospinal fluid drainage pathway in normal and hydrocephalic guinea pig brain Tokai J Exp Clin Med. 2005 Apr; 30(1):21-9. . View in PubMed
  • MR imaging of newborns by using an MR-compatible incubator with integrated radiofrequency coils: initial experience Radiology. 2004 May; 231(2):594-601. . View in PubMed
  • In vivo characterization of fatty acids in human adipose tissue using natural abundance 1H decoupled 13C MRS at 15 T: clinical applications to dietary therapy. NMR Biomed. 2003 May; 16(3):160-7. . View in PubMed
  • Evolving techniques for the investigation of muscle bioenergetics and oxygenation Biochem Soc Trans. 2002 Apr; 30(2):232-7. . View in PubMed
  • Magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the human brain Anat Rec. 2001 04; 265(2):54-84. . View in PubMed
  • Identification of cerebral acetone by 1H-MRS in patients with epilepsy controlled by ketogenic diet MAGMA. 1999 Mar; 8(1):33-42. . View in PubMed
  • Efficacy of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in clinical decision making for patients with suspected malignant brain tumors J Neurooncol. 1999; 45(1):69-81. . View in PubMed
  • In vivo MR spectroscopy of human dementia Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 1998 Nov; 8(4):809-22. . View in PubMed
  • MR of hypoxic encephalopathy in children after near drowning: correlation with quantitative proton MR spectroscopy and clinical outcome AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1998 Oct; 19(9):1617-27. . View in PubMed
  • Proton-decoupled 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy reveals osmotic and metabolic disturbances in human hepatic encephalopathy J Neurochem. 1998 Oct; 71(4):1564-76. . View in PubMed
  • Lack of effect of oral choline supplement on the concentrations of choline metabolites in human brain Magn Reson Med. 1998 Jun; 39(6):1005-10. . View in PubMed
  • Quantitative proton-decoupled 31P MRS and 1H MRS in the evaluation of Huntington’s and Parkinson’s diseases Neurology. 1998 Apr; 50(4):1033-40. . View in PubMed
  • In vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy of human brain: the biophysical basis of dementia Biophys Chem. 1997 Oct; 68(1-3):161-72. . View in PubMed
  • Differentiation between cortical atrophy and hydrocephalus using 1H MRS Magn Reson Med. 1997 Mar; 37(3):395-403. . View in PubMed
  • Evidence from proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy for a metabolic cascade of neuronal damage in shaken baby syndrome Pediatrics. 1997 Jan; 99(1):4-14. . View in PubMed
  • Magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the study of hyperammonemia and hepatic encephalopathy Adv Exp Med Biol. 1997; 420:185-94. . View in PubMed