Keck School Faculty

Steven L Giannotta, MD
Steven L Giannotta, MD
Chair and Professor of Neurological Surgery, Dr. Martin Weiss Chair in Neurological Surgery
Neurological Surgery
GNH 3300 Off Campus Los Angeles
Steven L. Giannotta M.D., Chair of Neurological Surgery, joined the Department of Neurosurgery at USC in 1980.

His research interests have always been related to cerebral blood flow and cerebral protection from ischemia. Based on some preliminary studies done in primates early in his career it was discovered that cerebral blood flow could be augmented by various manipulations of the cardiovascular system. This resulted in the adaptation of such techniques in the clinical realm especially as an effective means of counteracting the ischemic effects of cerebral vasospasm. This program ultimately evolved into what has come to be recognized as "hyperdynamic therapy". Subsequently his clinical interests have related to various surgical approaches to intracranial vascular and cranial base neoplastic disease. Recently his attention has turned to looking at ethnic differences in the presentation of cerebral vascular disorders.

Dr. Giannotta has gained recognition for his work in cerebrovascular disease of the brain and spinal cord. He has surgically treated over 1000 intracranial aneurysms. In conjunction with his associates Dr. Giannotta has developed a comprehensive approach to the gamut of cerebrovascular conditions. Techniques utilized in this comprehensive program include but are not limited to microsurgical clip ligation for aneurysms, coil embolization for aneurysms, microvascular excision, embolization, stereotactic radiosurgery using the Gamma Knife for arteriovenous malformations, carotid endarterectomy and extracranial to intracranial bypass procedures for cerebrovascular occlusive disease.

Dr. Giannotta also has an interest and special expertise in surgical approaches to the cranial base. He has surgically removed more than 400 acoustic neuromas and along with several colleagues in otolaryngology has developed a team approach to complex cranial base lesions including acoustic neuromas, meningiomas of the cranial base, complex aneurysms that require cranial base approaches and other benign conditions affecting the base of the brain and skull. Complex conditions may require several modes of therapy including surgical excision, embolization, and stereotactic radiosurgery using the Gamma Knife and Cyberknife.

Dr. Giannotta earned his medical degree and did his residency at University of Michigan.

He is involved in many local, national and international committees and organizations.

Discrepancy in Neurologic Outcomes Following Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage as a Function of Socioeconomic Class World Neurosurg. 2020 Jun; 138:e787-e794. . View in PubMed

Intentional Subtotal Resection of Vestibular Schwannoma: A Reexamination J Neurol Surg B Skull Base. 2020 Apr; 81(2):136-141. . View in PubMed

Effectiveness of Gamma Knife Radiosurgery in the Treatment of Refractory Trigeminal Neuralgia: A Case Series Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown). 2019 Oct 17. . View in PubMed

Increased complication and mortality among non-index hospital readmissions after brain tumor resection is associated with low-volume readmitting hospitals J Neurosurg. 2019 Oct 04; 1-13. . View in PubMed

Early Readmission After Ventricular Shunting in Adults with Hydrocephalus: A Nationwide Readmission Database Analysis World Neurosurg. 2019 Aug; 128:e38-e50. . View in PubMed

Increased Hospital Surgical Volume Reduces Rate of 30- and 90-Day Readmission After Acoustic Neuroma Surgery Neurosurgery. 2019 03 01; 84(3):726-732. . View in PubMed

Commentary: Modern Training and Credentialing in Neuroendovascular Acute Ischemic Stroke Therapy Neurosurgery. 2019 07 01; 85(suppl_1):S58-S59. . View in PubMed

Extracranial-Intracranial Bypass for Treatment of Blister Aneurysms: Efficacy and Analysis of Complications Compared with Alternative Treatment Strategies World Neurosurg. 2018 Sep; 117:e417-e424. . View in PubMed

In situ administration of abciximab for thrombus resolution during intracranial bypass surgery: case report J Neurosurg. 2018 01 19; 130(1):268-272. . View in PubMed

Development of a Perfusion-Based Cadaveric Simulation Model Integrated into Neurosurgical Training: Feasibility Based On Reconstitution of Vascular and Cerebrospinal Fluid Systems Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown). 2018 01 01; 14(1):72-80. . View in PubMed

Factors associated with burnout among US neurosurgery residents: a nationwide survey J Neurosurg. 2018 11 01; 129(5):1349-1363. . View in PubMed

Impact of the 2003 ACGME Resident Duty Hour Reform on Hospital-Acquired Conditions: A National Retrospective Analysis J Grad Med Educ. 2017 Apr; 9(2):215-221. . View in PubMed

Evaluation of time to aneurysm treatment following subarachnoid hemorrhage: comparison of patients treated with clipping versus coiling J Neurointerv Surg. 2016 Apr; 8(4):373-7. . View in PubMed

Giant, calcified colloid cyst of the lateral ventricle J Clin Neurosci. 2016 Feb; 24:6-9. . View in PubMed

Cerebrospinal fluid reconstitution via a perfusion-based cadaveric model: feasibility study demonstrating surgical simulation of neuroendoscopic procedures J Neurosurg. 2015 Nov; 123(5):1316-21. . View in PubMed

A case report of two different skull base pathologies causing hearing loss in the same ear: vestibular schwannoma and superior semicircular canal dehiscence Am J Otolaryngol. 2015 May-Jun; 36(3):488-91. . View in PubMed

Health disparities in time to aneurysm clipping/coiling among aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage patients: a national study World Neurosurg. 2014 Dec; 82(6):1071-6. . View in PubMed

Intracranial fusarium fungal abscess in an immunocompetent patient: case report and review of the literature J Neurol Surg Rep. 2014 Dec; 75(2):e241-5. . View in PubMed

A Perfusion-based Human Cadaveric Model for Management of Carotid Artery Injury during Endoscopic Endonasal Skull Base Surgery J Neurol Surg B Skull Base. 2014 Oct; 75(5):309-13. . View in PubMed

Endoscopic-assisted resection of intracranial epidermoid tumors World Neurosurg. 2014 Sep-Oct; 82(3-4):450-4. . View in PubMed

Introduction: Strategies for management and outcomes of arteriovenous malformations Neurosurg Focus. 2014 Sep; 37(3):Introduction. . View in PubMed

A persistent primitive hypoglossal artery arising from the external carotid artery associated with subarachnoid hemorrhageWorld Neurosurg. 2014 Jul-Aug; 82(1-2):239. e1-3. . View in PubMed

Argonaute-2 promotes miR-18a entry in human brain endothelial cells J Am Heart Assoc. 2014 May 16; 3(3):e000968. . View in PubMed

A proposed grading system for standardizing tumor consistency of intracranial meningiomas Neurosurg Focus. 2013 Dec; 35(6):E1. . View in PubMed

A review of epigenetic and gene expression alterations associated with intracranial meningiomas Neurosurg Focus. 2013 Dec; 35(6):E5. . View in PubMed

Genomic and transcriptome analysis revealing an oncogenic functional module in meningiomas Neurosurg Focus. 2013 Dec; 35(6):E3. . View in PubMed

DNA methylation in the malignant transformation of meningiomas PLoS One. 2013; 8(1):e54114. . View in PubMed

Extent of resection and early postoperative outcomes following removal of cystic vestibular schwannomas: surgical experience over a decade and review of the literature Neurosurg Focus. 2012 Sep; 33(3):E13. . View in PubMed

Incidence trends in the anatomic location of primary malignant brain tumors in the United States: 1992-2006 World Neurosurg. 2012 Mar-Apr; 77(3-4):518-24. . View in PubMed

Cervical spine dural arteriovenous fistula with coexisting spinal radiculopial artery aneurysm presenting as subarachnoid hemorrhage: case report Neurosurgery. 2012 Jan; 70(1):E259-63; discussion E263. . View in PubMed

Cerebral arteriovenous malformations: issues of the interplay between stereotactic radiosurgery and endovascular surgical therapy World Neurosurg. 2011 May-Jun; 75(5-6):638-47. . View in PubMed

Cavernous malformations Neurosurg Focus. 2010 Sep; 29(3):Introduction. . View in PubMed

Cerebral vasospasm and concurrent left ventricular outflow tract obstruction: requirement for modification of hyperdynamic therapy regimen Neurocrit Care. 2010 Apr; 12(2):265-8. . View in PubMed

Delayed toxicity from gamma knife radiosurgery to lesions in and adjacent to the brainstem J Clin Neurosci. 2009 Sep; 16(9):1139-47. . View in PubMed

Digital photography using the intraoperative microscope in neurosurgery Surg Neurol. 2009 Aug; 72(2):153-6. . View in PubMed

Fenestrated aneurysm clips in the surgical management of anterior communicating artery aneurysms: operative techniques and strategyClinical article. Neurosurg Focus. 2009 May; 26(5):E7. . View in PubMed

Endovascular management of spinal dural arteriovenous fistulasA review. Neurosurg Focus. 2009 May; 26(5):E15. . View in PubMed

Aberrant angiogenic characteristics of human brain arteriovenous malformation endothelial cells Neurosurgery. 2009 Jan; 64(1):139-46; discussion 146-8. . View in PubMed

A review of selective hypothermia in the management of traumatic brain injury Neurosurg Focus. 2008 Oct; 25(4):E9. . View in PubMed

Internal carotid artery aneurysms occurring at the origin of fetal variant posterior cerebral arteries: surgical and endovascular experience Neurosurgery. 2008 Jul; 63(1 Suppl 1):ONS55-61; discussion ONS61-2. . View in PubMed

Access to emergency care Bull Am Coll Surg. 2007 Apr; 92(4):44; author reply 44-5. . View in PubMed

A review of ocular manifestations in intracranial hypotension Neurosurg Focus. 2007; 23(5):E8. . View in PubMed

Aneurysms in children: review of 15 years experience J Clin Neurosci. 2006 Feb; 13(2):188-92. . View in PubMed

Gamma knife radiosurgery for trigeminal neuralgia Neurosurgery. 2005 Jun; 56(6):1295-301; discussion 1301-3. . View in PubMed

Comparison of endovascular and surface cooling during unruptured cerebral aneurysm repair Neurosurgery. 2004 Aug; 55(2):307-14; discussion 314-5. . View in PubMed

Gamma knife radiosurgery for benign cavernous sinus tumors: quantitative analysis of treatment outcomes Neurosurgery. 2004 Jun; 54(6):1385-93; discussion 1393-4. . View in PubMed

Gamma knife radiosurgery for pituitary adenoma: early results Neurosurgery. 2003 Jul; 53(1):51-9; discussion 59-61. . View in PubMed

Covered stent-graft repair of the brachiocephalic arteries: technical note Neurosurgery. 2002 Jul; 51(1):247-52; discussion 252-3. . View in PubMed

Cranial base approaches for the surgical treatment of aggressive posterior fossa dural arteriovenous fistulae with leptomeningeal drainage: report of four technical cases Neurosurgery. 2002 May; 50(5):1156-60; discussion 1160-1. . View in PubMed

Balloon-protected carotid angioplasty Neurosurgery. 2000 Apr; 46(4):918-21; discussion 922-3. . View in PubMed

Carotid stenosis in a multiethnic population J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2000 Mar-Apr; 9(2):64-9. . View in PubMed

Examination of the spatial and temporal distribution of sensory cortical activity using a 100-electrode array J Neurosci Methods. 1999 Aug 01; 90(1):57-66. . View in PubMed

Intraoperative angiography in the management of pediatric vascular disorders Pediatr Neurosurg. 1999 Jan; 30(1):16-22. . View in PubMed

Carotid endarterectomy compared with angioplasty and stenting: the status of the debate Neurosurg Focus. 1998 Dec 15; 5(6):e2. . View in PubMed

Hypervascular acoustic neuroma Neurol Res. 1998 Dec; 20(8):748-50. . View in PubMed

Iatrogenic vertebrobasilar insufficiency after surgery of the subclavian or brachial artery: review of three cases Neurosurgery. 1998 Dec; 43(6):1450-7; discussion 1457-8. . View in PubMed

Embolization of neurosurgical lesions involving the ophthalmic artery Neurosurgery. 1998 Dec; 43(6):1298-303. . View in PubMed

Coil embolization of a trigeminal-cavernous fistula AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1998 Nov-Dec; 19(10):1953-4. . View in PubMed

Carotid angioplasty and stenting in high-risk patients Surg Neurol. 1998 Oct; 50(4):300-11; discussion 311-2. . View in PubMed

Endovascular coil occlusion of a traumatic basilar-cavernous fistula: technical report Neurosurgery. 1998 Jun; 42(6):1394-7; discussion 1397-8. . View in PubMed

Attenuation of brain injury and reduction of neuron-specific enolase by nicardipine in systemic circulation following focal ischemia and reperfusion in a rat model J Neurosurg. 1997 Nov; 87(5):731-7. . View in PubMed

Arachnoid cyst rupture producing subdural hygroma and intracranial hypertension: case reports Neurosurgery. 1997 Oct; 41(4):951-5; discussion 955-6. . View in PubMed

Cranial base approaches to posterior circulation aneurysms J Neurosurg. 1997 Oct; 87(4):544-54. . View in PubMed

Chondromyxoid fibroma of the temporal bone Surg Neurol. 1997 Aug; 48(2):148-52. . View in PubMed

Heads-up intraoperative endoscopic imaging: a prospective evaluation of techniques and limitations Neurosurgery. 1997 Mar; 40(3):526-30; discussion 530-1. . View in PubMed

Endovascular treatment of a dissecting posteroinferior cerebellar artery aneurysm: case report Neurosurgery. 1996 Nov; 39(5):1036-8; discussion 1038-9. . View in PubMed

A founder mutation as a cause of cerebral cavernous malformation in Hispanic Americans N Engl J Med. 1996 Apr 11; 334(15):946-51. . View in PubMed

Cellular uptake and transport of methylprednisolone at the blood-brain barrier Neurosurgery. 1996 Feb; 38(2):348-54. . View in PubMed

Innovations in surgical approach: lateral cranial base approaches Clin Neurosurg. 1996; 43:72-90. . View in PubMed

Acoustic neuroma surgery in patients over 65 years of age Ear Nose Throat J. 1995 Jan; 74(1):21-7. . View in PubMed

Cardiac performance enhancement and hypervolemic therapy Neurosurg Clin N Am. 1994 Oct; 5(4):725-39. . View in PubMed

Brain stem compression secondary to adipose graft prolapse after translabyrinthine craniotomy: case report Neurosurgery. 1994 Sep; 35(3):521-3; discussion 523-4. . View in PubMed

Extradural temporopolar approach to lesions of the upper basilar artery and infrachiasmatic region J Neurosurg. 1994 Aug; 81(2):230-5. . View in PubMed

A statistical analysis of factors related to symptomatic cerebral vasospasm Acta Neurochir (Wien). 1994; 127(1-2):27-31. . View in PubMed

Life-threatening reactions to propofol Neurosurgery. 1993 Dec; 33(6):1116-7. . View in PubMed

Complications of hypervolemic therapy J Neurosurg. 1993 Nov; 79(5):798-800. . View in PubMed

Cardiac performance enhancement from dobutamine in patients refractory to hypervolemic therapy for cerebral vasospasm J Neurosurg. 1993 Oct; 79(4):494-9. . View in PubMed

Application of photodynamic therapy to the treatment of atherosclerotic plaques Neurosurgery. 1993 Mar; 32(3):438-43; discussion 443. . View in PubMed

Diffuse arteriovenous malformations: a clinical, radiological, and pathological description Neurosurgery. 1992 Nov; 31(5):863-8; discussion 868-9. . View in PubMed

Hematogenous factors and prediction of delayed ischemic deficit after subarachnoid hemorrhage Stroke. 1992 Oct; 23(10):1404-9. . View in PubMed

Age related alterations in the response of the pial arterioles to adenosine in the rat Mech Ageing Dev. 1992 Sep; 65(2-3):257-76. . View in PubMed

Cardiac performance indices during hypervolemic therapy for cerebral vasospasm J Neurosurg. 1991 Jul; 75(1):27-31. . View in PubMed

Induced hypertension and hypervolemia for treatment of cerebral vasospasm Neurosurg Clin N Am. 1990 Apr; 1(2):357-65. . View in PubMed

Hematoporphyrin uptake in atherosclerotic plaques: therapeutic potentials Neurosurgery. 1988 Sep; 23(3):307-12. . View in PubMed

Dilantin-induced long-term bilateral total external ophthalmoplegia J Clin Neuroophthalmol. 1986 Mar; 6(1):22-6. . View in PubMed

Evaluation of cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea by metrizamide computed tomographic cisternography Neurosurgery. 1985 Jan; 16(1):54-60. . View in PubMed

Computed tomographic guidance stereotaxis in the management of lesions of the third ventricular region Neurosurgery. 1984 Oct; 15(4):502-8. . View in PubMed

High dose glucocorticoids in the management of severe head injury Neurosurgery. 1984 Oct; 15(4):497-501. . View in PubMed

Acute traumatic vertebral arteriovenous fistula: balloon occlusion with the use of a contralateral approach Neurosurgery. 1984 Feb; 14(2):225-9. . View in PubMed

Effect of heparin reversal following endarterectomy in an atherosclerotic animal model Bull Clin Neurosci. 1984; 49:52-62. . View in PubMed

Hemodynamic effects of pentobarbital therapy for intracranial hypertension Crit Care Med. 1983 Sep; 11(9):697-701. . View in PubMed

Carotid occlusion in cysticercosis Neurology. 1983 Aug; 33(8):1078-80. . View in PubMed

Intravenous nitroglycerin for the treatment of chronic cerebral vasoconstriction in the primate J Neurosurg. 1981 Dec; 55(6):865-8. . View in PubMed

Carotid endarterectomy: technical improvements Neurosurgery. 1980 Oct; 7(4):309-12. . View in PubMed

A simple, inexpensive technique for accurate mass localization by computerized tomography: technical note J Neurosurg. 1980 May; 52(5):733-5. . View in PubMed

Carotid-cavernous sinus fistulas and venous thrombosis AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1980 Mar-Apr; 1(2):141-8. . View in PubMed

Gradual carotid artery occlusion in the treatment of inaccessible internal carotid artery aneurysms Neurosurgery. 1979 Oct; 5(4):417-21. . View in PubMed

Computerized tomography in Reye's syndrome: evidence for pathological cerebral vasodilatation Neurosurgery. 1978 May-Jun; 2(3):201-4. . View in PubMed

Diagnosis and treatment of postoperative cerebral vasospasm Surg Neurol. 1977 Oct; 8(4):286-90. . View in PubMed

Epidermoid cyst of the third ventricle Surg Neurol. 1976 Mar; 5(3):164-6. . View in PubMed

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