Keck School Faculty

William Stohl, MD, PhD
William Stohl, MD, PhD
Professor of Medicine;Chief, Division of Rheumatology
Medicine
HMR 711 Health Sciences Campus Los Angeles
Dr. Stohl’s research focus is on systemic lupus erythematosus (pathogenesis, natural course of disease, treatment, animal models, immunologic disturbances, novel therapeutics); rheumatoid arthritis (pathogenesis, natural course of disease, treatment, animal models, immunologic disturbances, novel therapeutics); Sjogren's syndrome (biomarkers, novel therapeutics); and B cells (basic biology, role in autoimmune diseases, development of targeted therapies).

Dr. Stohl received his M.D. (1977) and his Ph.D. (1979) from the University Pennsylvania.

Arthritis Foundation Southern California Chapter: James R. Klinenberg, M.D. Award, 2003

University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine: Upjohn Award, 1979

IgM plasma cells reside in healthy skin and accumulate with chronic inflammation J Invest Dermatol. 2019 May 29. . View in PubMed

Elevated serum globulin gap as a highly reliable marker of elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate in patients with systemic rheumatic diseases Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2019 May 11. . View in PubMed

Constitutive reduction in the checkpoint inhibitor, CTLA-4, does not accelerate SLE in NZM 2328 mice Lupus Sci Med. 2019; 6(1):e000313. . View in PubMed

Efficacy and Safety of Subcutaneous Belimumab in Anti-Double-Stranded DNA-Positive, Hypocomplementemic Patients With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Arthritis Rheumatol. 2018 Aug; 70(8):1256-1264. . View in PubMed

A 6-month open-label extension study of the safety and efficacy of subcutaneous belimumab in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus Lupus. 2018 Aug; 27(9):1489-1498. . View in PubMed

Increased Cathepsin S activity associated with decreased protease inhibitory capacity contributes to altered tear proteins in Sjögren's Syndrome patients Sci Rep. 2018 Jul 23; 8(1):11044. . View in PubMed

Clinical response beyond the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Responder Index: post-hoc analysis of the BLISS-SC study Lupus Sci Med. 2018; 5(1):e000288. . View in PubMed

A TLR9-dependent checkpoint governs B cell responses to DNA-containing antigens J Clin Invest. 2017 May 01; 127(5):1651-1663. . View in PubMed

Maternal Serum B-Cell Activating Factor Levels: Candidate Early Biomarker for Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy Hypertension. 2017 11; 70(5):1007-1013. . View in PubMed

Inhibition of B cell activating factor (BAFF) in the management of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2017 06; 13(6):623-633. . View in PubMed

Efficacy and Safety of Subcutaneous Belimumab in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: A Fifty-Two-Week Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study Arthritis Rheumatol. 2017 05; 69(5):1016-1027. . View in PubMed

B cell-independent contribution of BAFF to murine autoimmune disease Clin Immunol. 2016 Nov; 172:111-116. . View in PubMed

Efficacy and safety of subcutaneous tabalumab, a monoclonal antibody to B-cell activating factor, in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: results from ILLUMINATE-2, a 52-week, phase III, multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study Ann Rheum Dis. 2016 Feb; 75(2):332-40. . View in PubMed

Differential Development of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in NZM 2328 Mice Deficient in Discrete Pairs of BAFF Receptors Arthritis Rheumatol. 2015 Sep; 67(9):2523-35. . View in PubMed

A dendritic-cell-stromal axis maintains immune responses in lymph nodes Immunity. 2015 Apr 21; 42(4):719-30. . View in PubMed

Editorial: the BAFFling immunology of systemic lupus erythematosus: beyond B cells Arthritis Rheumatol. 2015 Mar; 67(3):612-5. . View in PubMed

APRIL mediates peritoneal B-1 cell homeostasis Immunol Lett. 2014 Aug; 160(2):120-7. . View in PubMed

Disease control and safety of belimumab plus standard therapy over 7 years in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus J Rheumatol. 2014 Feb; 41(2):300-9. . View in PubMed

Local BLyS production by T follicular cells mediates retention of high affinity B cells during affinity maturation J Exp Med. 2014 Jan 13; 211(1):45-56. . View in PubMed

Future prospects in biologic therapy for systemic lupus erythematosus Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2013 Dec; 9(12):705-20. . View in PubMed

BAFF- and APRIL-dependent maintenance of antibody titers after immunization with T-dependent antigen and CD1d-binding ligand J Immunol. 2013 Aug 01; 191(3):1154-63. . View in PubMed

Incremental expenditure of biologic disease modifying antirheumatic treatment using instrumental variables in panel data Health Econ. 2013 Jul; 22(7):807-23. . View in PubMed

Efficacy and safety of belimumab in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a phase II, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging Study J Rheumatol. 2013 May; 40(5):579-89. . View in PubMed

Development of systemic lupus erythematosus in NZM 2328 mice in the absence of any single BAFF receptor Arthritis Rheum. 2013 Apr; 65(4):1043-54. . View in PubMed

Induced T regulatory cells suppress osteoclastogenesis and bone erosion in collagen-induced arthritis better than natural T regulatory cells Ann Rheum Dis. 2012 Sep; 71(9):1567-1572. . View in PubMed

Biologic differences between various inhibitors of the BLyS/BAFF pathway: should we expect differences between belimumab and other inhibitors in development? Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2012 Aug; 14(4):303-9.. View in PubMed

Effect of belimumab on vaccine antigen antibodies to influenza, pneumococcal, and tetanus vaccines in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus in the BLISS-76 trial J Rheumatol. 2012 Aug; 39(8):1632-40. . View in PubMed

Belimumab reduces autoantibodies, normalizes low complement levels, and reduces select B cell populations in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus Arthritis Rheum. 2012 Jul; 64(7):2328-37. . View in PubMed

Dispensability of APRIL to the development of systemic lupus erythematosus in NZM 2328 mice Arthritis Rheum. 2012 May; 64(5):1610-9. . View in PubMed

A phase III, randomized, placebo-controlled study of belimumab, a monoclonal antibody that inhibits B lymphocyte stimulator, in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus Arthritis Rheum. 2011 Dec; 63(12):3918-30. . View in PubMed

Cytokine disturbances in systemic lupus erythematosus Arthritis Res Ther. 2011 Jul 06; 13(4):228. . View in PubMed

B Cell and BAFF dependence of IFN-a-exaggerated disease in systemic lupus erythematosus-prone NZM 2328 mice J Immunol. 2011 Apr 15; 186(8):4984-93. . View in PubMed

J Immunol. 2011 Apr 01; 186(7):4223-33. . View in PubMed

Inhibition of joint damage and improved clinical outcomes with rituximab plus methotrexate in early active rheumatoid arthritis: the IMAGE trial Ann Rheum Dis. 2011 Jan; 70(1):39-46. . View in PubMed

BAFF promotes Th17 cells and aggravates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis PLoS One. 2011; 6(8):e23629. . View in PubMed

Constitutive overexpression of BAFF in autoimmune-resistant mice drives only some aspects of systemic lupus erythematosus-like autoimmunity Arthritis Rheum. 2010 Aug; 62(8):2432-42. . View in PubMed

Autoantibody-dependent and autoantibody-independent roles for B cells in systemic lupus erythematosus: past, present, and future Autoimmunity. 2010 Feb; 43(1):84-97. . View in PubMed

Association of the response to tumor necrosis factor antagonists with plasma type I interferon activity and interferon-beta/alpha ratios in rheumatoid arthritis patients: a post hoc analysis of a predominantly Hispanic cohort Arthritis Rheum. 2010 Feb; 62(2):392-401. . View in PubMed

B lymphocyte stimulator expression in pediatric systemic lupus erythematosus and juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients Arthritis Rheum. 2009 Nov; 60(11):3400-9. . View in PubMed

Elevated synovial expression of triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1 in patients with septic arthritis or rheumatoid arthritis Ann Rheum Dis. 2009 Nov; 68(11):1768-74. . View in PubMed

Deficiency of type I IFN receptor in lupus-prone New Zealand mixed 2328 mice decreases dendritic cell numbers and activation and protects from disease J Immunol. 2009 Nov 01; 183(9):6021-9. . View in PubMed

A phase II, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging study of belimumab in patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus Arthritis Rheum. 2009 Sep 15; 61(9):1168-78. . View in PubMed

Accelerated pathological and clinical nephritis in systemic lupus erythematosus-prone New Zealand Mixed 2328 mice doubly deficient in TNF receptor 1 and TNF receptor 2 via a Th17-associated pathway J Immunol. 2009 Feb 15; 182(4):2532-41. . View in PubMed

Association of plasma B lymphocyte stimulator levels and disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus Arthritis Rheum. 2008 Aug; 58(8):2453-9. . View in PubMed

B lymphocyte stimulator expression in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with tumour necrosis factor alpha antagonists: differential effects between good and poor clinical responders Ann Rheum Dis. 2008 Aug; 67(8):1132-8. . View in PubMed

B cell depletion therapy in systemic lupus erythematosus: relationships among serum B lymphocyte stimulator levels, autoantibody profile and clinical response Ann Rheum Dis. 2008 Jul; 67(7):1011-6. . View in PubMed

Global T cell dysregulation in non-autoimmune-prone mice promotes rapid development of BAFF-independent, systemic lupus erythematosus-like autoimmunity J Immunol. 2008 Jul 01; 181(1):833-41. . View in PubMed

Biologic activity and safety of belimumab, a neutralizing anti-B-lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) monoclonal antibody: a phase I trial in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus Arthritis Res Ther. 2008; 10(5):R109. . View in PubMed

B cell depletion therapy in systemic rheumatic diseases: different strokes for different folks? Clin Immunol. 2006 Oct; 121(1):1-12.. View in PubMed

Circulating levels of B lymphocyte stimulator in patients with rheumatoid arthritis following rituximab treatment: relationships with B cell depletion, circulating antibodies, and clinical relapse Arthritis Rheum. 2006 Mar; 54(3):723-32. . View in PubMed

B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) isoforms in systemic lupus erythematosus: disease activity correlates better with blood leukocyte BLyS mRNA levels than with plasma BLyS protein levels Arthritis Res Ther. 2006; 8(1):R6. . View in PubMed

Humoral autoimmunity in mice overexpressing B cell surface CD19: vital role for MHC class II Clin Immunol. 2005 Sep; 116(3):257-64. . View in PubMed

BAFF overexpression and accelerated glomerular disease in mice with an incomplete genetic predisposition to systemic lupus erythematosus Arthritis Rheum. 2005 Jul; 52(7):2080-91. . View in PubMed

BlySfulness does not equal blissfulness in systemic lupus erythematosus: a therapeutic role for BLyS antagonists Curr Dir Autoimmun. 2005; 8:289-304. . View in PubMed

Increased CXCL8 (IL-8) expression in Multiple Sclerosis J Neuroimmunol. 2004 Oct; 155(1-2):161-71. . View in PubMed

Inverse association between circulating APRIL levels and serological and clinical disease activity in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus Ann Rheum Dis. 2004 Sep; 63(9):1096-103. . View in PubMed

MHC class II-independent and -dependent T cell expansion and B cell hyperactivity in vivo in mice deficient in CD152 (CTLA-4) Int Immunol. 2004 Jul; 16(7):895-904. . View in PubMed

Dichotomous effects of complete versus partial class II major histocompatibility complex deficiency on circulating autoantibody levels in autoimmune-prone mice Arthritis Rheum. 2004 Jul; 50(7):2227-39. . View in PubMed

A therapeutic role for BLyS antagonists Lupus. 2004; 13(5):317-22. . View in PubMed

B lymphocyte stimulator overexpression in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: longitudinal observations Arthritis Rheum. 2003 Dec; 48(12):3475-86. . View in PubMed

In vitro and in vivo T cell oligoclonality following chronic stimulation with staphylococcal superantigens Clin Immunol. 2003 Sep; 108(3):182-9. . View in PubMed

Local production of B lymphocyte stimulator protein and APRIL in arthritic joints of patients with inflammatory arthritis Arthritis Rheum. 2003 Apr; 48(4):982-92. . View in PubMed

BLyS and APRIL form biologically active heterotrimers that are expressed in patients with systemic immune-based rheumatic diseases J Immunol. 2002 Oct 15; 169(8):4314-21. . View in PubMed

B lymphocyte stimulator protein-associated increase in circulating autoantibody levels may require CD4+ T cells: lessons from HIV-infected patients Clin Immunol. 2002 Aug; 104(2):115-22. . View in PubMed

B lymphocyte stimulator protein levels in systemic lupus erythematosus and other diseases Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2002 Aug; 4(4):345-50. . View in PubMed

In vivo staphylococcal superantigen-driven polyclonal Ig responses in mice: dependence upon CD4(+) cells and human MHC class II Int Immunol. 2001 Oct; 13(10):1291-300. . View in PubMed

Cell cycle phase-specific survival of CD95 ligand-challenged Jurkat cells: upregulation of heat-shock response Cell Immunol. 2001 Jul 10; 211(1):21-9. . View in PubMed

Elevated serum B lymphocyte stimulator levels in patients with systemic immune-based rheumatic diseases Arthritis Rheum. 2001 Jun; 44(6):1313-9. . View in PubMed

Impaired cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity in systemic lupus erythematosus following in vitro polyclonal T cell stimulation: a contributory role for non-T cells Lupus. 1999; 8(4):293-9. . View in PubMed

CD95 (Fas)-based, superantigen-dependent, CD4+ T cell-mediated down-regulation of human in vitro immunoglobulin responses J Immunol. 1998 Jun 01; 160(11):5231-8. . View in PubMed

Impaired nonrestricted cytolytic activity in systemic lupus erythematosus: involvement of a pathway independent of Fas, tumor necrosis factor, and extracellular ATP that is associated with little detectable perforin Arthritis Rheum. 1997 Jun; 40(6):1130-7. . View in PubMed

Impaired recovery and cytolytic function of CD56+ T and non-T cells in systemic lupus erythematosus following in vitro polyclonal T cell stimulationStudies in unselected patients and monozygotic disease-discordant twins. Arthritis Rheum. 1996 Nov; 39(11):1840-51. . View in PubMed

In vitro inhibition by intravenous immunoglobulin of human T cell-dependent B cell differentiation induced by staphylococcal superantigens Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1996 May; 79(2):122-33. . View in PubMed

Differential human T cell-dependent B cell differentiation induced by staphylococcal superantigens (SAg)Regulatory role for SAg-dependent B cell cytolysis. J Immunol. 1995 Aug 15; 155(4):1838-50. . View in PubMed

Impaired polyclonal T cell cytolytic activityA possible risk factor for systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum. 1995 Apr; 38(4):506-16. . View in PubMed

Enhancing effects of interleukin 2-treated peripheral blood mononuclear cells on subsequent B cell differentiation Cell Immunol. 1994 Sep; 157(2):381-92. . View in PubMed

Human T cell-dependent B cell differentiation induced by staphylococcal superantigens J Immunol. 1994 Jul 01; 153(1):117-27. . View in PubMed

Impaired generation of polyclonal T cell-mediated cytolytic activity despite normal polyclonal T cell proliferation in systemic lupus erythematosus Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1992 May; 63(2):163-72. . View in PubMed

Induction of human T cell proliferation by a monoclonal antibody to CD5 J Immunol. 1991 Jan 01; 146(1):47-52. . View in PubMed

Inhibition by anti-CD2 monoclonal antibodies of anti-CD3-induced T cell-dependent B cell activation Cell Immunol. 1990 Oct 15; 130(2):257-70. . View in PubMed

Differential CD3/T cell antigen receptor-mediated IL-2 production in jurkat T cellsDissociation of IL-2 response from total inositol phosphate and calcium responses. J Immunol. 1990 Aug 15; 145(4):1078-87. . View in PubMed

Generation of cytolytic activity with anti-CD3 monoclonal antibodies involves both IL-2-independent and -dependent components J Immunol. 1990 May 15; 144(10):3718-25. . View in PubMed

A novel role for accessory cells in T cell-dependent B cell differentiation Cell Immunol. 1990 May; 127(2):458-69. . View in PubMed

A functionally unique anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody cross-reactive with basal keratinocytes Cell Immunol. 1989 Jul; 121(2):247-60. . View in PubMed

Human peripheral blood T helper cell-induced B cell activation results in B cell surface expression of the CD23 (BLAST-2) antigen Cell Immunol. 1989 Jun; 121(1):99-112. . View in PubMed

Inhibitory effects of anti-CD2 monoclonal antibodies on interleukin 2 production and interleukin 2 receptor expression in anti-CD3-induced T cell activation Cell Immunol. 1989 May; 120(2):351-65. . View in PubMed

Characterization of lymphokines mediating B cell growth and differentiation from monoclonal anti-CD3 antibody-stimulated T cells J Immunol. 1989 Apr 01; 142(7):2343-51. . View in PubMed

Feedback inhibition of B cell differentiation by monomeric immunoglobulin Int Rev Immunol. 1989; 5(2):189-95. . View in PubMed

In vitro induction of T cell-dependent B cell differentiation in patients with common varied immunodeficiency Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1988 Nov; 49(2):273-82. . View in PubMed

Differential immunomodulation by anti-CD2 monoclonal antibodies of anti-CD3-induced T cell activation: dependence upon the individual anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody used for activation Cell Immunol. 1988 Oct 01; 116(1):73-85. . View in PubMed

Correlation between systemic lupus erythematosus and T4 epitope phenotype Arthritis Rheum. 1987 Dec; 30(12):1412-5. . View in PubMed

Inhibition of T cell-dependent human B cell proliferation and B cell differentiation by polyspecific monomeric IgG Clin Exp Immunol. 1987 Dec; 70(3):649-57. . View in PubMed

Induction of T cell-dependent B cell differentiation by anti-CD3 monoclonal antibodies J Immunol. 1987 Mar 15; 138(6):1667-73. . View in PubMed

Cellular mechanisms in the in vitro inhibition of pokeweed mitogen-induced B cell differentiation by immunoglobulin for intravenous use J Immunol. 1986 Jun 15; 136(12):4407-13. . View in PubMed

Heterogeneity in expression of the T4 epitope in black individuals Scand J Immunol. 1984 Sep; 20(3):273-8. . View in PubMed

Deficient OKT4 epitope on helper T cells in patient with SLE: confusion with AIDS N Engl J Med. 1984 Jun 07; 310(23):1531. . View in PubMed

Detection of the precursor and effector cells of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in the thoracic duct of the rat Cell Immunol. 1980 Sep 01; 54(2):471-7. . View in PubMed

A quantitative assay for experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in the rat based on permeability of spinal cords to 125I-human gamma-globulin J Immunol. 1979 Mar; 122(3):920-5. . View in PubMed

Chronic permeability of the central nervous system to mononuclear cells in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in the Lewis rat J Immunol. 1978 Sep; 121(3):844-50. . View in PubMed

Distribution of the thy-1 antigen in cellular and subcellular fractions of adult mouse brain J Immunol. 1977 Aug; 119(2):422-7. . View in PubMed

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